Cells

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  • Cells
    • Organelles and Division Of Labour
      • Ribosome
        • Attached to RER
        • Synthesises Proteins
      • Mitochondria
        • Releases ATP energy
      • Nucleus
        • Contains genetic material
      • Chloroplasts
        • Site of photosynthesis
      • Golgi Apparatus
        • Modifies and packages proteins
      • Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
        • Transports proteins which were made on attached ribosomes
      • Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulm
        • Produces lipids
      • Nucleolus
        • Makes RNA and ribosomes
      • Lysosomes
        • Contain digestive  enzymes
      • Centrioles
        • Cell division- form spindle fibres
    • Biological Membranes and The Fluid Mosaic Model
      • Role
        • Separating cell contents from the outside environment
        • Separating cell components from cytoplasm
        • Cell recognition and signalling
        • Holding the components of some metabolic pathways in place
        • Regulating the transport of materials into or out of cells
      • Structure
        • Glycoproteins and Glycolipids
          • Phospholipid molecules/ Proteins with a carbohydrate attached
          • Cell Signalling in the immune system
        • Cholesterol
          • Gives mechanical stability- improves barrier
        • Carrier Proteins
          • Actively move substances across the membrane- e.g. active transport in root hair cells
        • Receptor Sites
          • Allow hormones to bind with the cell so that cell 'response' can be carried out
        • Enzymes and coenzymes
          • Metabolic processes- respiration and photosynthesis
        • Phospholipid bilayer
          • Forms the basic structure
          • Hydrophilic head and hydrophobic tails
        • Channel Proteins
          • Movement of some substances across the membrane (Ions that are too large or too hydrophilic)
    • Cell Specialisation
      • Sperm Cell
      • Root Hair Cell
      • Erythrocytes and Neutrophils
      • Tissues
      • Organs
      • Organ systems
    • Production Of Proteins
      • 1) mRNA copy of the DNA intructions (gene) for protein is made in the nucleus
      • 2) mRNA leaves the nucleus through a nuclear pore
      • 3) mRNA attaches to a ribosome (on the RER) The ribosome reads the instructions to assemble the protein
      • 4) Protein molecules are pinched off in vesicles and travel to Golgi.
      • 5) Vesicles fuses with Golgi
      • 6) Golgi processes (by adding sugars) and packages the  protein ready for release
      • 7) Packaged protein is pinched off in a vesicle and moves towards cell surface membrane
      • 8) Vesicle fuses with cell surface membrane which opens to release the protein outside the cell
    • Microscopes
      • Magnification
        • The degree to which the image size is larger than the object itself
        • Magnification= Image size / Actual size
      • Resolution
        • The degree to which it is possible to distinguish between two objects
      • Light Microscopes
        • Advantages
          • Capable of a magnification of up to x1500
          • Cheap to buy and quick to prepare specimens
        • Disadvantages
      • Electron Microscopes
        • Disadvantages
          • Samples have to be placed in a vacuum
          • Expensive
          • Preparing samples is extremely difficult
        • Advantages
          • Resolution of 0.20nm- much more detail
          • Can see organelles inside cells
        • Scanning  Electron Microscopes (SEM)
          • 3D images
          • Magnification x100 000
        • Transmission Electron Microscope
          • 2D images
          • Magnification  x500 000
    • Differences Between Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes
      • Eukaryotes
        • Nucleus, Membrane Bound Organelles, Nuclear envelope, undulipodia, have mitochondria
      • Prokaryotes
        • Haae no nucleus, no membrane bouund organelles, smaller ribosomes than eukaryotes, carry out respiration on cell surface membranes not mitochondria
    • Cell Division
      • Meiosis
        • 4 daughter cells- haploid cells- gametes
      • The Cell Cycle
        • 1) Interphase
          • 1) Growth- Biosynthesis- proteins made, organelles replicated
          • 2) Synthesis of new DNA- replication of chromosomes
          • 30 Growth- cell becomes bigger
        • 2) Mitosis
        • 3) Cytokinesis
          • Cytoplasm divides

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