Cell Structure

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  • Cells
    • The Nucleus
      • nuclear pores
      • nucleoplasm
      • surrounded by an nuclear envelope
      • chromatim is the DNA found in the nucleoplasm
      • nucleolus assembles the ribosomes
    • Endoplasmic Reticulum
      • Smooth ER lacks ribosomes
        • synthesise, store and transport lipids and carbohydrates
      • Rough ER has ribosomes on the outside of the membrane
        • provides a large surface area and a pathway for transportation
    • Epithelial Cell
        • distinct nucleus and membrane bound organelles
    • Golgi Apparatus
      • lipids and proteins from ER pass through the golgi
        • carbohydrates are added to make glycoproteins
      • stacks of membranes containing vesicles
      • transported in vesicles which move to the cell surface and release their contents
      • labels the proteins so they are sent to the right place
    • Mitochondria
      • matrix is the material containing the proteins and lipids
      • cristae form on the inner membrane
        • provide a larger surface area
      • produce ATP
      • double membrane
    • Lysosomes
      • breaks down material in phagocytic cells
      • rekaese enzymes to the outside of the cell
      • formed when the vesicle contains enzymes
      • isolate the harmful enzymes from the rest of the cell
    • Microvilli
      • finger like projections that increase surface area
    • Ribosomes
      • 70S - prokaryotic cells
      • 80S - eukaryotic cells


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