Cells

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  • Cells
    • Euakryotic
      • Nucleus
        • Nuclear envelope - double membrane with pores to control entarence and exit
        • Nucleoplasm - interior of nuclear envelope, full of chromatin
        • Nucleus - dark region of chromatin, makes ribosomes
      • Mitochondrion
        • Where aerobic respiration takes place to produce ATP energy
        • Found in large quantities in cells using lots of energy, e.g muscles
        • Surrounded by a double memrane, outer is permeable, inner is folded into cristae, studded with stalked particles which produce the ATP
        • Inside, matrix, containing small, circular strands of DNA
      • Ribosomes
        • Site of protein synthesis found in cytoplasm for cells use or on RER to make proteins for export
      • Endoplasmic Reticulaum
        • Rough ER, studded with ribosomeswhich make proteins which are processed in RER, then transported by golgi body
        • Smooth ER dprocesses materials needed by the cells
      • Golgi body
        • Release proteins by exocytosis
        • Transports proteins from RER to cell membrane for export attached by proteins and vessles
      • Lysosmoes
        • Formed from RER containing digestive enzymes to break down unwanted molecules or digest a vacuoles content
    • Prokaryotic
      • Uni-cellular with no nucleus
      • DNA
        • Circular, not for proteins or chromosomes
      • Plasmid
        • Small circles of DNA separate from main loop
        • Used to swap DNA
      • Plasma membrane
        • made of phospholipids and proteins
      • Cell wall
        • Made of murrain, a glycoprotein called peptidoglycan
      • Capsule
        • Thick polysaccharide outer layer
        • Used to stick cells together for protection and food. Can clump together into a biofilm
      • Flagellum
        • rotating helical-shaped tail used for movement
        • Motor is in cell membrane, driven by a H+ gradient
    • Microscopy
      • Magnification
        • How much bigger an images is than its original size
      • Resolution
        • Smallest separation where two points can be distinguished
        • Limited by light wave length
      • Electron microscope
        • Beam of electrons
        • Light - hot wire. Focused - electromagnets
      • Transmission EM
        • work like a EM. Has the best resolution
        • Forms an  image on a screen or photo paper
      • Scanning EM
        • Scans a beam of electrons on a sample and collects electrons scattered by the surface
        • Poor resolution by gives 3D images
    • Magnification
      • Magnification factor
        • Magnification= image length/actual length
      • Using a Scale bar
        • Actual size = image length/bar length x bar scale
    • Cell fraction - Differential centrifugation
      • 1: cut tissue in a cold (slowness enzymes) isotonic (stops osmosis) buffer (maintains pH)
      • 2: grind tissue to open cells
      • 3: Filer to remove insoluble tissue to make cell-free extract
      • 4: centrifuge at low speed - pellets nuclei
      • 5:Centrifuge at medium speed - pellets mitochondria and chloroplasts
      • 6: Centrifuge at high speed - pellets ER, golgi e.c.t
      • 7: centrifuge at very high speed - pellets ribosomes

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