B2 Keeping Healthy Summary

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  • Created by: Farhana
  • Created on: 09-12-12 08:26
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  • Cells
    • White Blood Cells
      • Antibodies
        • Recognise Antigens
          • Antigens - protein molecules on MO cell
          • 1. Mark MO, so other WBCs engulf/digest it
          • 2. Bind to and neutralise viruses/toxins
          • 3. Some attach to bacteria, killing directly
      • Immune system’s role - deal with any pathogens that enter body. Immune responses always involve WBCs.
    • Microorganism cells
      • Pathogens(cause disease): Bacteria, Fungi, Viruses, Protozoa
        • Cause infectious diseases
          • Symptoms caused by Cell Damage or Toxins
        • Bacteria reproduce in warm, moist, nutrientional areas = lots of places in body
        • Antimicrobials can kill/inhibit growth of pathogens
          • Antibiotics = antimicrobials. Kill ONLY bacteria, no flus/ cold = viruses
          • MOs can develop randon mutations in DNA
            • Changes characteristics,e.g. less affected/resistant to a antimicrobial
              • If stop antibiotic prescribed, can increase risk of antibiotic resistant bacteria
                • 1. New drugs first tested in labs on human cells
                  • 2. If OK, tested on live mammals
                    • 3. If OK and effective, tested on healthy humans for safety
                      • 4. If good, tested on sufferers
                        • 3 human trials given:, Placebo, Blind + Double blind
                          • Human drug trials for a long time because of time for effect + if side effects later
                          • 1. New drugs first tested in labs on human cells
                            • 2. If OK, tested on live mammals
                              • 3. If OK and effective, tested on healthy humans for safety
                                • 4. If good, tested on sufferers
                                  • 3 human trials given:, Placebo, Blind + Double blind
                                    • Human drug trials for a long time because of time for effect + if side effects later
      • MOs reproduce = infection
    • Capillaries- 1 cell thick (branches of arteries)
      • Blood to every cell to exchange subs., diffuse subs. permeable walls.
      • Arteries- blood Away from heart to body, O2+ nutrients to cells
        • Heart- double pump, keeps blood flowing through vessels
          • Capillaries- 1 cell thick (branches of arteries)
            • Blood to every cell to exchange subs., diffuse subs. permeable walls.
            • Arteries- blood Away from heart to body, O2+ nutrients to cells
              • Heart- double pump, keeps blood flowing through vessels
                • Veins - blood back to heart, CO2 away
                  • Valves, 1D. Walls not thick comes at low pressure.Big lumens- easy blood flow
                • Heart diseases
                  • Lifestyle factors increase risk
                    • E.g. Poor diet, Smoking, Stress, Misuse of illegal drugs, Excessive alcohol drinking
                      • Alcohol suppresses ADH production, kidneys reabsorb less water
                        • ADH hormone
                          • Released in blood stream by pituitary gland
                          • Controls concentration of urine
                        • Larger amount of more dilute urine, dehydration
                      • Ecstasy increases ADH production, kidneys reasorb more water
                        • Smaller amount of more concentrated urine
                  • High blood pressure increase risk
                    • Can damage arteries, fat builds, blocks blood = heart attack, damages heart
                    • Low blood pressure, heart relaxes + fills w/ blood
              • Walls strong + elastic- comes out of heart high pressure
          • Veins - blood back to heart, CO2 away
            • Valves, 1D. Walls not thick comes at low pressure.Big lumens- easy blood flow
          • Heart diseases
            • Lifestyle factors increase risk
              • E.g. Poor diet, Smoking, Stress, Misuse of illegal drugs, Excessive alcohol drinking
                • Alcohol suppresses ADH production, kidneys reabsorb less water
                  • ADH hormone
                    • Released in blood stream by pituitary gland
                    • Controls concentration of urine
                  • Larger amount of more dilute urine, dehydration
                • Ecstasy increases ADH production, kidneys reasorb more water
                  • Smaller amount of more concentrated urine
            • High blood pressure increase risk
              • Can damage arteries, fat builds, blocks blood = heart attack, damages heart
              • Low blood pressure, heart relaxes + fills w/ blood
        • Walls strong + elastic- comes out of heart high pressure
    • Tissues
      • Organs
        • Kidneys
          • Help balance subs. in body +help regulate water content
            • Balance water levels by producing dilute/concentrated urine
              • Homeostasis- maintaining a constant internal environment (balance inputs/outputs)
                • Automatic control systems help homeostasis. 3 main compo. : Receptors, Processing centre, Effector
    • Contains
    • WBCs able to detect things ‘foreign’ to the body. WBCs then engulf the microbes + digest them - non-specific
      • White Blood Cells
        • Antibodies
          • Recognise Antigens
            • Antigens - protein molecules on MO cell
            • 1. Mark MO, so other WBCs engulf/digest it
            • 2. Bind to and neutralise viruses/toxins
            • 3. Some attach to bacteria, killing directly
        • Immune system’s role - deal with any pathogens that enter body. Immune responses always involve WBCs.
    • Heart contracts
    • 3 major blood vessels:

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