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  • Cells
    • Plant cells
      • permanent vacuole: contains cell sap to help keep the cell turgid.
      • Cell wall: strengthens the cell
      • Chloroplasts, contains chlorophyll, which absorbs light energy for photosynthesis
    • Plant and  Animal cells
      • Cell membrane: controls the movement of substances into and out of the cell
      • Nucleus: contains genetic material, which controls the activities of a cell
      • Cytoplasm: most chemical processes take place here, controlled by enzymes
      • Mitochondria: most energy is released by respiration
      • Ribosomes: protein synthesis takes place here
    • Bacterial cell
      • Single celled orgasnism
      • No nucleus,  so genetic material floats in cytoplasm
      • Has cytoplasm, cell membrane and cell wall
      • Yeast cell
        • Singled cell organism
        • Has nucleus, cytoplasm, cell membrane and cell wall
    • Specialised cells
      • Pallisade leaf cell: Packed with chloroplasts for photosynthesis, crammed at the top so they're nearer  the light. tall shape means a lot of surface area for absorbing CO2.
      • Guard cell
        • Special kidney shape which opens and closes the stomata in the leaf.
        • When the plant has lots of water the guard cell fill with it and go plump and turgid. This makes stomata open so gases can be exchanged for photosynthesis.
        • When the plant is short of water, guard cells lose water and become flaccid making stomata close this helps stop water vapour escaping.
        • Thin outer walls and thickened inner walls make opening and closing work.
        • Sensitive to light and close at night to save water without losing out on photosyn..
        • Adapted to allowing gas exchange and controlling water loss
      • Red blood cells
        • concave shape = big surface area for absorbing oxygen. Also helps them pass smoothly  through capillaries to reach body cells
        • Packed with haemoglobin - pigment that absorbs oxygen.
        • no nucleus, to leave even more room for haemoglobin
      • Sperm and Egg cell
        • Egg cell contains huge food reserves to feed the embryo.
        • Egg membrane changes its structure to stop any more sperm getting in - offspring have right amount of DNA.
        • Sperm has a long tail and a streamlined head to help it swim to the egg. A lot of mitochondria to provide energy needed.
        • Sperm carries enzymes in their head to digest through the egg cell membrane


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