Ultrastructure of cells - Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic (Module 2.1.1)

Hey lovelies, i hope this is a good mindmap in terms of detail. i tried to add everything on there in terms of the specification. Try using this by copying it out or printing it for yourself and then covering up sections to see what you can remember on a post it note!

Happy revising :)

  • Created by: kizsidhu
  • Created on: 18-03-18 16:42
View mindmap
  • Cells, (Module 2.1.1)
    • Eukaryotic
      • Animals
        • Nucleus
          • Nucleus contains DNA. this is a form of chromatin
          • Nucleolus contains RNA
          • surrounded by nuclear envelope
        • Mitochondria
          • powerhouse of cell. produces ATP from aerobic respiration
        • Protein Synthesis
          • Golgi Appartus
            • membrane bound sacs called cisternae
              • site of modification done to proteins and packaging into transport vesicles
          • Endoplasmic Reticulum
            • Smooth
              • Site of lipid and carbohydrate synthesis
            • Rough
              • SIte of protein synthesis. Given its name due to round appearance from ribosomes attached to surface of membrane
        • Membrane
          • made from phospholipid bilayer.
          • relative to cytoskeleton
            • microtubules
              • made from tubulin
                • forms tubes for transport
            • Microfilaments
              • made from actin
                • responsible for cell movement
            • intermediate fibres
              • give cell strength
        • vesicles
          • transport materials from one place to another. used for separation
            • E.G. lysosomes
              • contain digestive, hydrolytic enzymes to digest waste cell contents
        • centrioles
          • used in cell division
        • ribosomes
          • could be free-floating in the cytoplasm or attached to RER
        • Cillia
          • waft mucus
        • Cytoplasm
          • 70% water suspending organelles
      • Plants
        • Cellulose Cell Wall
          • made from beta gucose
            • freely permeable
              • cell sap pushes to cell wall and thus determines the school
                • Also a defence mechanism from pathogens
        • Membrane
          • relative to cytoskeleton
            • Microfilament
              • made of actin
                • encourages cell movement
            • Microtubules
              • made of tubulin
                • allows tubes to form for transport
            • Intermediate fibres
              • provides strength
          • Phospholipid bilayer
        • Nucleus
          • nucleolus contains RNA
          • Nucleus contains DNA in the form of chromatin
          • surrounded by nuclear envelope
        • Centrioles
          • Involved in the division of the cell
        • vesicles
          • transports materials from one place to another
            • e.g. lysosomes
              • which contain hydrolytic, digestive enzymes to digestive cellular contents
        • Vacuoles
          • membrane lined sacs
            • contains cell sap
              • vital for appearance of plant
        • Protein synthesis
          • Golgi Appartus
            • membrane bound sacs called cisternae
              • site of modification and packaging
          • Endoplasmic Reticulum
            • Smooth
              • site of lipid and carbohydrate synthesis
            • Rough
              • site of protein synthesis
                • Given it's name from ribosomes attached to membrane
        • Chloroplasts
          • responsible for photosynthesis
            • contains chlorophyll pigments
        • Ribosomes
          • could be attached to RER or free floating
        • Mitochondria
          • produces ATP from aerobic respiration
        • Cytoplasm
          • 70% water suspending organelles
    • Prokaryotic
      • Plasmids
        • small loops of DNA.
          • passes between different species of bacteria
            • contains useful genes - for example, antibiotic resisitance
      • Capsule
        • extra protection around the cell
          • counteracts the immune response
      • Membrane
        • No membrane bound organelles. eg. vesicles
          • Cell membrane same as eukaryotes
            • when undergoing division, the cell divides by binary fission
      • Cytoplasm
        • 70% water, suspends cellular organelles
      • ribosomes
        • ribosomes smaller in prokaryotic. defined as "70s"
          • make proteins and RNA
            • also made of protein and DNA
      • Flagella
        • rotates using motor proteins to propel the cell forwards
          • for example in sperm cells
      • cell wall
        • made of muerin in bacteria. also known as glycoprotein
          • provides strength and structure
  • (Okay so FYI, karyote means nucleus so prokaryote literally means "before nucleus" and eukaryote means "Nucleus")

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Biology resources:

See all Biology resources »See all Cellular processes and structure resources »