Cells and living processes

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  • Cells and living processes
    • Organelles and ultrastructure
      • Using a light microscope, you can identify the nucleus, chloroplast and vacuole.
        • Using a electron microscope, you can identify a range of organelles in animals and plant cells.
      • The detail of the inside of the cells, as identified by the electron microscope, is termed the cells ultrastructure.
    • Division of labour
      • Term given to each individual organelle, with their specific function.
    • Movement and stability in cells
      • Cytoskeleton
        • Internal framework that is made up of fibres and proteins. Provides stability to the cell.
        • Microtubules are fibres that move a microorganism through a liquid.
          • Made of the protein tubulin.
          • Other proteins on the mictotubules move organelles and other cell contents along the fibres.
            • This is how chromosomes are moved during mitosis, and it's how vesicles move from the ER to the golgi apparatus.
              • Known as microtubule motors. They require ATP.
      • Flagella and cilia
        • Cilia
          • Hair -like extensions that stick out of the cell.
          • Ciliated epithelium trap mucus.
        • Flagella
          • Hair-like extension that sticks out of the cell.
          • In a sperm cell, the flagella can move the whole cell.
      • Vesicles and vacuoles
        • Vesicles are membrane-bound sacs found in cells. Used to transport materials and substances across the cell.
        • In the plants, the large vacuole maintains cell stability.
          • Filled with water and solutes so it pushes the cytoplasm against the cell wall, making the cell turgid.
      • Plant cell walls
        • Cell surface membranes.
        • Made of cellulose, a carbohydrate made out of glucose units.
        • Held together by turgor pressure,


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