Biology Paper 1 Cells

  • Created by: benitaxx
  • Created on: 14-02-18 15:59
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  • Cells
    • Animal Cell
      • Nucleus
        • Controls the activity of the cell
      • Cytoplasm
        • Where the chemical reactions take place in a cell
      • Cell membrane
        • Controls what goes in and out of the cell
      • Ribosomes
        • Where protein synthesis occurs
      • Mitochondria
        • Creates energy via aerobic respiration
    • Plant cell
      • Nucleus
        • Controls the activity of the cell
      • Cytoplasm
        • Where the chemical reactions take place
      • Mitochondria
        • Where energy is produced via aerobic respiration
      • Ribosomes
        • Where protein synthesis occurs
      • Vacuole
        • Contains cell sap-supports plant
      • Cell wall
        • made of cellulose-strengthens cell
      • cell membrane
        • Controls what goes in and out of the cell
      • Chloroplasts
        • where photosynthesis takes place
    • Bacteria Cells
      • Cell wall
      • Flaggella
        • A tail that helps bacteria move
      • Nucleoid
        • Circular DNA because it's a  prokaryotic cell
      • Plasmids
        • Also contain genetic infor
      • Cytoplasm
    • Specialised cells
      • Nerve cells
        • Lots of dendrites-allow it to make connections with other cells
        • Lots of mitochondria giving it the energy needed to carry the nerve impulse
        • Nerve ending has special synapses which allow chemicals to transfer
      • Sperm Cells
        • Tail to propel sperm to the egg
        • Mitochondria provide energy for their journey
        • Nucleus contains one set of genetic material
        • Acrosome contains enzymes that allow sperm to penetrate egg
      • Muscle Cells
        • Protien fibres that contract
        • Mitochondria to provide energy
      • Root hair cell
        • Lots of mitochondria for active transport
        • Long projection to increase surface area to absorb minerals
      • Xylem
        • Cells are arranged end to end but end walls hollowed to make tubes
        • Cell wall is strengthened by a substance called lignin
      • Pholem
        • End walls of cell allow sugars through but support tubes
        • Arranged end to end in tubes
    • Investigating Cells
      • Electron Microscope
        • Expensive
        • magnify up to 2000,000
        • resolving power-0.2 NM apart
        • Can only look at dead things
      • Light microscope
        • Magnify up to 2000 times
        • Resolving power-200nm apart
        • Can use living samples
        • Can see in colour
      • Magnification=image size/object size
    • Cell Division
      • Mitosis is where each cell divides into two identical cells
        • Each cell starts with two pairs of chromosomes
          • Each chromosome replicates it's self
            • One set of chromosomes is pulled to each end of the cell and the nucleus divides
              • Cell membrane and cytoplasm divide to form 2 identical daughter cells
      • Mitosis is important for: repairing damaged tissues, growth and repair of multi cellular organisms and asexual reproduction
    • Transport in and out of cells
      • Diffusion
        • The net movement of particles from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration
        • Factors affecting diffusion are: temperature, concentration gradient and surface area
        • digested food molecules from small intestine diffuse into blood
      • Osmosis
        • The diffusion of water from a  dilute to a concentrated solution through a semi permeable membrane
        • Always involves movement of water
        • Required practical-see how much water potatoes gain  or loose through osmosis with different concentrations of sugar solutions
      • Active transport
        • Moves substances against the concentration gradient from an area of high concentration to low concentration
        • Requires energy from respiration
        • Allows mineral ions to be absorbed into plant root hairs
        • Allows sugar molecules to be absorbed from lower concentrations in the gut, into the blood

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