AS Biology Cell Structure

Cell structure info mind map

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  • Cell Structure
    • Microscopes
      • Light
        • Specimen must be thin + transparent
        • Can't show very small objects
      • Electron
        • Shorter wavelengths = 400x better
        • TEM = electrons pass through specimen
        • SEM = bouncing electrons off specimen
        • B&W only
        • Speicmen must be dead
      • Magnification
        • size of image/ real size of object
      • Resolution
        • degree of detail in an image
        • Shorter wavelength = better resolution
    • Structure/ Function of Organelles
      • Nucleus
        • largest part, usually stained
        • contains chromosomes (DNA) - make ribosomes & proteins
      • Endoplasmic Reticulum
        • RER have ribosomes attached
        • RER is where most protein synthesis occurs - proteins collect in cisternae to be moved
        • SER in reprod. organs = steroid hormone
        • SER in liver = toxins broken down + made harmless
      • Golgi Apparatus
        • at one side, vesicles fuse; at other side sacs break down into vesicles + move away
        • vesicles that fuse are from ER, processed in GA
        • endocytosis
        • vesicles that remain in cell are lysosomes
      • Lysosomes
        • tiny bags of digestive enzymes
        • fuse with other vesicles for digestion
      • Chloroplasts
        • plant cells
        • ATP + NADPH make carbohydrate
      • Mitochondria
        • animal + plant cells
        • aerobic resp.
        • ATP created
      • Vacuole
        • cell sap contains a variety of substances in solution
      • Plasma Membranes
        • made up of lipid + protein
        • controls what enters +leaves cell
      • Centrioles
        • animal only
        • make + organise microtubules
      • Cilia & Flagella
        • long, thin extensions that produce movement
        • contain microtubules
        • mostly animal
      • Cytoskeleton
        • microfilaments + microtubules create it
        • provides strength + directs movement
      • Cell Wall
        • plant cells
        • made of cellulose, held together by pectin

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