Cell Specialisation

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  • Cell Specialisation
    • Specialised Cells
      • Sperm Cell
        • many mitochondria - lots of energy to generate movement of flaggelum
        • specialised lysosome (acrosome) that releases enzymes onto the egg and allow sperm to penertrate
        • small, long and thin - aerodynamic to ease movement
        • single long undulipodium propels cell up uterine tract
      • White Blood Cells (neutrophils)
        • keep nucleus, enormous number of lysosomes produced to kill micro-organisms
          • cytoplasm appears granular
        • created from un-differentiated cells in bone marrow
          • packed full of protein haemoglobin
      • Root hair cell
        • Hair like projection increases surface area
        • large vacuole
      • Red Blood Cells (erythrocytes)
        • lose nucleus, mitochondria, golgi apparatus, rough    endoplasmic   reticulum
        • packed full of protein haemoglobin
        • change shape - biconcave disc
    • Organising the Organism
      • Organs - a collection of tissues working together to form a certain function
      • Organ System - made up of a number of organs working together to perform an overall life function
      • Tissues -  a collection of different types of cells that are similar to each other and perform a common function
    • Differentiation
      • the changes occurring in cells of a multicellular organism so that each different type of cell becomes specialised to perform a specific function
      • cells can differentiate in a number of ways, changing the number of a specific organelle, the shape of the cell and/or the contents
    • Size
      • there is a physical limit to how large 1 cell can get - governed by the need for oxygen and nutrients and the support structures that would be required


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