Cell Membranes - Parts and Roles

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  • Created by: Vikki4
  • Created on: 04-03-15 19:55
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  • Cell Membranes
    • Glycolipids and Glycoproteins
      • Proteins
        • Cell Membranes
          • Glycolipids and Glycoproteins
            • Proteins
              • Channel
                • Movement of specific substances
                • Large and polar molecules
              • Carrier
                • Actively move some things against concentration gradient
                  • Mg+ ions for making chlorophyll, also encourages osmosis
                  • Nitrate ions into xylem vessels encourages osmosis
                • Oscillate naturally for others down the concentration gradient
            • Cell recognition and cell signalling
            • Lipid with carbohydrate
            • Protein with carbohydrate
            • Receptor sites
              • Hormones bind with these on cell to trigger a response
              • Drugs bind to these to affect cell metabolism
              • Something can only bind if the cell membrane has that specific receptor site
          • Roles
            • Compartmentalisation
            • Selectively allowing materials in and out of the cell
            • Holding metabolic pathways in place
              • Enzymes
              • Proteins
              • Reactions in photosynthesis take place in membranes in the chloroplasts
                • Stacked in thylakoids
                • Hold more enzymes and coenzymes for more reactions
              • Coenzymes
              • Stages of respiration take place in membranes in mitochondria
                • Folded
                • Can hold more enzymes and coenzymes for more reactions
            • Cell recognition and cell signalling
            • Separating the contents of the cell from the outside
            • Different types of membranes
              • Tonoplast membrane
                • Surrounds vacuole
                • keeps contents of vacuole in position
              • Plasma membrane
                • Separates insides of cell from environment
                • Holds the cytoskeleton in place
          • Examples of specialisation
            • Muscle cells
              • Lots of carrier proteins
              • Glucose uptake
              • Down the concentration gradient
              • Does not require ATP
            • Plasma membranes have cell receptors that regulate growth
            • WBC Plasma Membranes
              • Protein receptors
              • Recognice foreign cells and particles
            • Internal membranes of chloroplasts
              • Chlorophyll
              • Other molecules for photosynthesis
          • Fluid Mosaic Model
            • 1972 - Singer and Nicholson
            • Phospholipid bilayer forms basic structure
              • Cholesterol to stabilise
                • Steroid molecule
                • Makes fatty acid barrier more complete
                • Materials can't pass through as easily
            • Protein molecules float in phospholipid bilayer
              • Some free
              • Some bound to other membrane components
              • Intrinsic and extrinsic
              • Channel and carrier
              • Some attached to the cytoskeleton and so cannot move
        • Channel
          • Movement of specific substances
          • Large and polar molecules
        • Carrier
          • Actively move some things against concentration gradient
            • Mg+ ions for making chlorophyll, also encourages osmosis
            • Nitrate ions into xylem vessels encourages osmosis
          • Oscillate naturally for others down the concentration gradient
      • Cell recognition and cell signalling
      • Lipid with carbohydrate
      • Protein with carbohydrate
      • Receptor sites
        • Hormones bind with these on cell to trigger a response
        • Drugs bind to these to affect cell metabolism
        • Something can only bind if the cell membrane has that specific receptor site
    • Roles
      • Compartmentalisation
      • Selectively allowing materials in and out of the cell
      • Holding metabolic pathways in place
        • Enzymes
        • Proteins
        • Reactions in photosynthesis take place in membranes in the chloroplasts
          • Stacked in thylakoids
          • Hold more enzymes and coenzymes for more reactions
        • Coenzymes
        • Stages of respiration take place in membranes in mitochondria
          • Folded
          • Can hold more enzymes and coenzymes for more reactions
      • Cell recognition and cell signalling
      • Separating the contents of the cell from the outside
      • Different types of membranes
        • Tonoplast membrane
          • Surrounds vacuole
          • keeps contents of vacuole in position
        • Plasma membrane
          • Separates insides of cell from environment
          • Holds the cytoskeleton in place
    • Examples of specialisation
      • Muscle cells
        • Lots of carrier proteins
        • Glucose uptake
        • Down the concentration gradient
        • Does not require ATP
      • Plasma membranes have cell receptors that regulate growth
      • WBC Plasma Membranes
        • Protein receptors
        • Recognice foreign cells and particles
      • Internal membranes of chloroplasts
        • Chlorophyll
        • Other molecules for photosynthesis
    • Fluid Mosaic Model
      • 1972 - Singer and Nicholson
      • Phospholipid bilayer forms basic structure
        • Cholesterol to stabilise
          • Steroid molecule
          • Makes fatty acid barrier more complete
          • Materials can't pass through as easily
      • Protein molecules float in phospholipid bilayer
        • Some free
        • Some bound to other membrane components
        • Intrinsic and extrinsic
        • Channel and carrier
        • Some attached to the cytoskeleton and so cannot move
  • Partially permeable membranes

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