Cell Mediated Immunity

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  • Cell Mediated Immunity
    • High specificity
    • Slow reaction
      • Quicker on secondary exposure
        • Develops memory
    • Intracellular Microbes
      • Viruses and some bacteria
        • Bacteria: Mycobacterium tuberculosis Listeria monocytogenes
        • Viruses Herpes simplex virus
        • Protozoa: Trypanosoma brucei (sleeping sickness)
        • Helminths: Leishmania sp.
    • Mediated by T lymphocytes
    • 2 effector esponses
      • Cytotoxic T cell production
      • Delayed Type Hypersensitivit (DTH) responses
    • Naive CD4+ T-cell
      • Antigen signal - MHCII - restricted
      • Co-stimulatory signal
      • Cytokines - polarisation
        • IL-12, IFN-gamma
        • Th1 cells
          • Co-stimulatory signal
          • Antigen signal - MHCII - restricted
    • Effector functions
      • Macrophage activation
      • Cytotoxic T-cell activation / differentiation
      • B cell activation: antibodies for opsonisation / clearance
      • Neutrophil activation
    • Cytotoxic T-cells
      • CD8+
        • Antigen signal - MHCI - restricted, Co-stimulatory signal
      • CD4+ T-cells
        • Th1 cells
          • IFN-gamma, IL-2
            • Cytotoxic T-cell production
              • Antigen signal - MHCI - restricted, Co-stimulatory signal
              • Perforin and Granzyme
                • Soluble Killing
              • IFN-gamma, TFN-beta
              • Fas-ligand
                • Membrane bound killing
    • DTH
      • Often against pathogens inside macrophages
      • Recruit monocytes
        • Keep monocytes at site
          • Activate monocytes
      • Th1 + IFN-gamma + TNF-alpha + IL-2
        • Macrophage activation
          • Amplification loop
            • Th1 + IFN-gamma + TNF-alpha + IL-2
              • Macrophage activation
                • Amplification loop
                  • Retained at site by macrophage inhibition factor (MIF)
            • Retained at site by macrophage inhibition factor (MIF)

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