Cell Division Revision

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  • Created by: Zoe
  • Created on: 17-05-13 16:19
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  • Cell Division
    • Cell Cycle
      • Repetitive process of growing and dividing
      • Growth Stage
        • Synthesis
          • Second Growth Stage
            • Mitosis
              • Cytokinesis
                • Cleavage of the Cytoplasm
              • Nuclear Division
            • Replication of chromosomes
          • Proteins made and organelles replicated
    • Two types of cell division in eukaryotes
      • Meiosis
        • Gametes
        • Genetically Different
        • Four daughter Cells
      • Mitosis
        • Genetically Identical
        • Body Cells
        • Two daughter cells
    • Mitosis
      • Prophase: chromosomesuper-coil,  centrioles form spindle, nuclear envelope breaks
        • Metaphase: chromosomes line up along central region
          • Anaphase: spindles contract, pulling chromatids to opposite ends of the cell
            • Telophase: chromatids uncoil and nuclear envelope forms
              • Mitosis
                • Prophase: chromosomesuper-coil,  centrioles form spindle, nuclear envelope breaks
                  • Metaphase: chromosomes line up along central region
                    • Anaphase: spindles contract, pulling chromatids to opposite ends of the cell
                      • Telophase: chromatids uncoil and nuclear envelope forms
                  • Ensures that:
                    • damaged issues are replaced with identical cells
                    • Each daughter cell has a full set of chromosomes
                    • there is no genetic variation
        • Ensures that:
          • damaged issues are replaced with identical cells
          • Each daughter cell has a full set of chromosomes
          • there is no genetic variation
      • Mutations
        • A change in the base sequence which would bring about a change in the structure of DNA
      • Cell Specialization
        • Specialisation occurs as a result of differentiation
          • Stem cells in mammels capable of differentiating into a number of different cell types
          • Meristem in plants
        • Animal Cells
          • Erythrocytes
            • No nucleus
            • Biconcave to increase surface area
            • very small
          • Sperm Cells
            • many mitochondria  for ATP
            • contain across which contains enzymes to digest egg wall
            • microtubules use ATP to slide over each other, creating lashing movement in tail.
          • Nuetrophils
            • contain many lysosomes for digestion
            • Can move and change shape in order to engulf bacteria
      • Meiosis
        • Reduction Division
          • M1: homologous pairs line up, wrap around each other and swap genetic information  Crossing Over
            • At end of M1, 2 cells with full numbers of chromosomes
              • Second division results in 4 daughter products with half amounts of chromosones
                • Meiosis
                  • Reduction Division
                    • M1: homologous pairs line up, wrap around each other and swap genetic information  Crossing Over
                      • At end of M1, 2 cells with full numbers of chromosomes
                        • Second division results in 4 daughter products with half amounts of chromosones
      • Second Growth Stage
        • Mitosis
          • Cytokinesis
            • Cleavage of the Cytoplasm
          • Nuclear Division
        • Replication of chromosomes

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