Cell Yourself


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  • Biology - Cell Yourself
    • Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes
      • Eukaryotes - organisms made up of eukaryotic cells
        • Complex and include all animal and plant cells
      • Prokaryote - A prokaryotic cell (Single-celled organism)
        • Eukaryotes - organisms made up of eukaryotic cells
          • Complex and include all animal and plant cells
        • Smaller and simpler e.g. bacteria
          • Bacterial Cells
            • Animal and Plant cells
              • All living things are made of cells
              • Animal Cells have
                • Nucleus - Contains DNA and controls the cell.
                • Cytoplasm - Where most of the cells chemical reactions occur.
                • Cell membrane - Controls what goes in and out of the cell, semi-permeable
                • Mitochondira - Where most aerobic respiration takes place.
                • Ribosomes - Where proteins are made in the cell
                • Plant Cells have all the organelles animal cells have plus:
                  • Cell Wall - Made of cellulose. Supports cell.
                  • Permanent Vacuole - Contains Cell sap
                  • Chloroplasts - Where photosynthesis occurs. Contain green pigment called chlorophyll, absorbs light.
                • In most animal cells the ability to differentiate is lost at an early stage after they become specialised.
                  • Muscle Cells - To contract to move organisms. Adaptions: Contain mitochondria to supply cell with energy.
                  • Nerve Cells - To recieve nerve impulses. Adaptions: long, can connect to different parts of the body.
                  • Sperm cells - To fertilise with egg cells. Adaptions: tail to help move, lots of mitrochondria.
              • Plant Cells have all the organelles animal cells have plus:
                • Cell Wall - Made of cellulose. Supports cell.
                • Permanent Vacuole - Contains Cell sap
                • Chloroplasts - Where photosynthesis occurs. Contain green pigment called chlorophyll, absorbs light.
            • Don't contain chloroplasts or mitochondria
            • Contain plasma membrane, cytoplasm, cell wall.
            • Pili - connects prokaryotes together
            • Flagellum - Moves the prokaryote
            • No nucleus, have circular DNA strand called nucleoid, floats freely.
              • May also have one or more small rings of DNA called plasmids
      • Animal and Plant cells
        • All living things are made of cells
        • Animal Cells have
          • Nucleus - Contains DNA and controls the cell.
          • Cytoplasm - Where most of the cells chemical reactions occur.
          • Cell membrane - Controls what goes in and out of the cell, semi-permeable
          • Mitochondira - Where most aerobic respiration takes place.
          • Ribosomes - Where proteins are made in the cell
          • In most animal cells the ability to differentiate is lost at an early stage after they become specialised.
            • Muscle Cells - To contract to move organisms. Adaptions: Contain mitochondria to supply cell with energy.
            • Nerve Cells - To recieve nerve impulses. Adaptions: long, can connect to different parts of the body.
            • Sperm cells - To fertilise with egg cells. Adaptions: tail to help move, lots of mitrochondria.
      • Microscopes
        • Cells are studied using microscopes.
          • Light Microscopes
            • Use light and lenses to form an image of a specimen and magnify it.
            • Slides - when preparing, add drop of water, peel layer if needed, add iodine drop as it stains so it adds colour, and add a cover slip on top.
              • Clip slide on to stage, select lowest powered objective lens, use coarse adjustment knob to move stage up, look down eyepiece and use soarse knob until in focus, adjust with fine adjustment knob. Draw observations with pencil
            • Clip slide on to stage, select lowest powered objective lens, use coarse adjustment knob to move stage up, look down eyepiece and use soarse knob until in focus, adjust with fine adjustment knob. Draw observations with pencil
          • Electron Microscopes
            • Use electrons, not light to form an image.
            • Have a higher magnification, resolution and let us see much smaller things in more detail.
              • Resolution - The degree to which it is possible to distinguish between 2 objects that are very close together
              • Magnification - The degree to which the size of an image is larger than the image itself
                • Magnification = image size/real size.
                  • 1. rearrange formula2. fill in values 3. micrometres 4. convert
        • Standard Form
          • The first number needs to be between 1 and 10 so e.g. 0.0025, decimal needs to go after the 2 then count how many decimal places it has to move = 2.5 x 10-3
      • Cell Specialisation and Differentiation
        • Cell differentiation is the process in which a cell changes to become specialised for its job
          • Most differentiation occurs as an organism develops.
            • Lots of plant cells don't lose the ability to differentiate.
              • Root hair cells - To absorb water and minerals. Adaptions: large surface area, close to xylem, large vacuole.
              • Stem cells - can turn into any type of cell, can dive to produce more, found in early human embryos, adults can be found in bone marrow, only turn to certain ones like rbcs. Can be grown in a lab to produce clones.
      • Principles of organisation
        • Tissue - A group of cells with a similar structure or function
        • Cell - The basic building block of all living organisms.
        • Organ - A collection of tissues that performs specific functions.
          • Organ system - a collection of organs that work together to form organisms.
    • Cells are studied using microscopes.
      • Light Microscopes
        • Use light and lenses to form an image of a specimen and magnify it.
        • Slides - when preparing, add drop of water, peel layer if needed, add iodine drop as it stains so it adds colour, and add a cover slip on top.
        • Electron Microscopes
          • Use electrons, not light to form an image.
          • Have a higher magnification, resolution and let us see much smaller things in more detail.
            • Resolution - The degree to which it is possible to distinguish between 2 objects that are very close together
            • Magnification - The degree to which the size of an image is larger than the image itself
              • Magnification = image size/real size.
                • 1. rearrange formula2. fill in values 3. micrometres 4. convert
      • Cell differentiation is the process in which a cell changes to become specialised for its job
        • Most differentiation occurs as an organism develops.
          • Lots of plant cells don't lose the ability to differentiate.
            • Root hair cells - To absorb water and minerals. Adaptions: large surface area, close to xylem, large vacuole.
            • Stem cells - can turn into any type of cell, can dive to produce more, found in early human embryos, adults can be found in bone marrow, only turn to certain ones like rbcs. Can be grown in a lab to produce clones.
      • Organ - A collection of tissues that performs specific functions.
        • Organ system - a collection of organs that work together to form organisms.

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