Cell structure and function

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  • Cell structure and function
    • Cell definition
      • Fundamental unit of all living organisms
      • Made up of a collection of molecules
      • Size and shape varies depending on cell's specialised functions
      • In order to survive, must carry out variety of functions
    • Cell functions
      • Respiration: cells require and absorb oxygen to produce heat and energy
      • Growth: cells grow to maturity by manufacturing proteins. they may then divide or specialise
      • Excretion: waste products pass out through the cell membrane
      • Irritability: cells can respond to a physical, chemical or thermal stimulus
    • Cell structure
      • Cell membrane
        • outer coating which selectively transports substances into and out of the cell
      • Nucleus
        • control centre of the cell
        • regulates general and specialist functions
      • Ribosomes
        • made of RNA and protein
        • manufacture other proteins
      • Rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum
        • manufactures, stores and transports materials within and outside of the cell
      • mitochondria
        • supply the cell's energy source
      • centrioles
        • essential for cell division
      • lysosomes
        • contain enzymes which digest worn our parts of the cell for recycling and elimination of waster products
      • Golgi apparatus
        • modifies and stores manufactured protein and transports it out of the cell
    • Cell division
      • human cells reproduce by mitosis
      • chromosomes and centrioles replicate
        • Cell then divides into two identical daughter cells
    • Nucleic acids
      • DNA carries the cell's genes as chromosomes
        • Genes are coded "instructions" for making proteins and for cell function
      • All three types of RNA are involved in the decoding (transcription) of DNA to make proteins
    • Enzymes
      • protein catalysts  that enable metabolic reactions at low temps
      • involved in all the cell functions of respiration, growth, excretion and irritaility


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