Science (Biology) 1

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  • Cell Structures.
    • The Light Microscope.
      • Useful for viewing whole cells or large sub cellular structures.
      • The eye piece and the objective lenses magnify the object.
      • A lamp provides illumination.
      • Magnification= magnification of the eyepiece lens x magnification of the objective lens.
      • Stains can be used to colour whole cells or structures within cells.
      • A mordant fixes the stain to the structures.
    • The Electron Microscope.
      • Useful for viewing sub cellular structures in detail.
      • They use a beam of electrons instead of a lamp
      • Electromagnets are used instead of lenses.
      • The image is viewed on a TV screen.
    • Sub cellular Sructures.
      • Nucleus- controls the cell and contains genetic material.
      • Cytoplasm- where most chemical reactions take place.
        • Chloroplasts-contain chlorophyll and are the site of photosynthesis
      • Cell membrane- a barrier that controls the passage of substances in and out of the cell.
      • Mitochondrua-contains the enzymes for cellelular respiration and are the site of respiration.
      • Cell wall-made from cellulose and provides structural support.
      • Vacuole- contains cell sap, which provides support


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