GCSE Combined Science AQA - Cell division

  • Created by: sean0254
  • Created on: 05-04-18 11:08
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  • Cell division
    • The nucleus of a cell contains chromosomes made of DNA molecules.
      • Each chromosome carries a large number of genes.
      • In body cells the chromosomes are normally found in pairs.
    • The cell cycle is when cells divide.
      • Before a cell can divide, it needs to grow; it needs more mitochondria and ribosomes.
        • The DNA replicates to form two copies of each chromosome.
          • Mitosis happens, pulling one set of chromosomes to each end of the cell, dividing the nucleus.
            • The cytoplasm and cell membrane then divide. Two identical cells.
            • This is important in the growth of multicellular organisms.
    • Stem cells are not differentiated. It is capable of giving rise to many more cells.
      • Stem cells can be taken from human embryos for cloning, adult bone marrow to form blood cells, and from meristem tissue in plants.
        • Treatment with stem cells can help treat diabetes or paralysis
    • Therapeutic cloning is when an embryo is produced with the same genes as the patient.
      • Stem cells can be taken from this embryo to treat medical conditions.
        • Stem cells can transfer viruses, and some people have ethical objections.
          • Rare species can be cloned to protect from extinction by the use of stem cells from meristem tissue.
            • Crops with special features can also be cloned to produce large numbers for farmers.


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