Cell Differentiation and Specialisation

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  • Cell Differentiation and Specialisation
    • Differentiation
      • the process in which a cell changes to become specialised for its job
      • develop different subcellular structures
        • allow them to carry out different functions
      • most differentiation occurs as an organism develops
        • animals cells = ability lost at an early stage
          • differentiation in mature mammals used for repairing and replacing cells
        • plant cells = ability never lost
      • un-differentiated cells called stem cells
    • Sperm Cells
      • get the male DNA to the female DNA
        • help it swim
      • long tail
        • help it swim
      • streamlined head
      • Nerve Cells
        • carry electrical signals
        • long
          • carry electrical signals
        • branched connections
        • Muscle Cells
          • contract quickly
          • long
            • contract quickly
          • contain lots of mitochondria
            • generate energy
          • Root Hair Cells
            • on the surface of roots
            • grow into long 'hairs' that stick out into the soil
              • large surface area
                • absorb mineral ions and water
          • Phloem and Xylem
            • transport food and water around plants
              • Xylem = hollow
                • things can flow through them
              • Phloem = few sub-cellular structures
                • things can flow through them
            • joined end to end

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