cell differentiation and specialisation

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  • cell specialisation and differentiation
    • cell differentiation
      • how a cell changes and becomes specialised
        • animal cell differentiation
          • occurs at early stages of development
          • only for cell repair and replacement
        • plant cell differentiation
          • occurs at all stages of life cycle
          • stems cells are grouped together in meristems
      • un- differentiated cells are called stem cells
    • cell specialisation
      • specialised animal cells
        • nerves
          • carry electrical signals
          • long branched connections
          • insulating sheath
        • sperm
          • fertilise an egg
          • streamlined
          • long tail
          • acrosome containing enzymes
          • large number of mitochondria
        • muscle
          • contract to allow movement
          • contains large amount of mitochondria
          • long
      • specialised plant cells
        • root hair cell
          • absorbs water and minerals from the soil
          • hair like projections to increase surface area
        • phloem
          • carries glucose
          • translocation- living cells
          • cells have end plates with holes
          • flows in both directions
        • xylem
          • carry water and minerals
          • transpiration- dead cells
          • cell walls toughened by lignin
          • flows in one direction

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