cell biology - cell structure

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  • cell biology - cell structure
    • a typical animal cell
      • all cells have structures inside of them, these are called sub-cellular structures
      • in an animal cell, the sub-cellular structures include
        • a nucleus, which controls the activities of the cell and contains the genetic manterial
        • cytoplasm, in which most of the chemical reactions take place
        • cell membrane, which controls the passage of substances into and out of the cell
        • mitochondria, where aerobic respiration takes place
        • ribosomes, where proteins are synthesised
    • plant cells
      • plant cells and algal cells contain all the sub-cellular structures found in animal cells
      • They also have:
        • a cell wall made of cellulose, which strengthens the cell
        • a permanent vacuole filled with cell sap, which supports the plant
      • plants need to make their own food, so some of their cells contain chlorplasts
      • chloroplasts absorb light to make food (glucose) by photosynthesis
    • prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells
      • there are 2 main types of cells
        • prokatyotic
        • eukaryotic
      • plant, animal and fungal cells are all eukaryotic
      • bacterial cells are prokaryotic
      • there are a number of differences between the two types of cell
      • prokaryotic cells are much smaller in size and
        • the genetic material is not enclosed in a nucleus
        • they do not contain mitochondria or chlorplasts
        • the genetic material is a single DNA loop and there may be one or more small rings of DNA, called plasmids
    • A typical bacterial cell
      • bacterial cells have many different shapes - some are round, some are rod-shaped and some are spiral - but they are all prokaryotic cells
      • in bacterial cells, the roles of mitochondria and chloroplasts are taken over by the cytoplasm
      • plasmids are present, which are circles of DNA that can be transferred from one cell to another
      • plasmids allow bacterial cells to move genes from one cell to another


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