B1 You and Your Genes Summary

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  • Created by: Farhana
  • Created on: 25-11-12 11:16
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  • Cell
    • Nucleus
      • Chromosomes
        • Genes
          • bb- homozygous
            • Bb- heterozygous
              • Huntington's disease sufferer (Hh) (HH)
                • Symptoms: Tremors(shaking), Clumsiness, Memory loss, Mood changes, Poor concentration
                • genetic diseases through faulty alleles
                  • Cystic fibrosis sufferer (ff)
                    • Symptoms: Breathing difficulty, Chest infections, Thick, sticky mucus in air passage, gut + pancreas, Difficulty digesting food
                    • Huntington's disease sufferer (Hh) (HH)
                      • Symptoms: Tremors(shaking), Clumsiness, Memory loss, Mood changes, Poor concentration
                      • genetic diseases through faulty alleles
                        • Cystic fibrosis sufferer (ff)
                          • Symptoms: Breathing difficulty, Chest infections, Thick, sticky mucus in air passage, gut + pancreas, Difficulty digesting food
                        • Can be prevented
                          • Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (embryos testedin IVF)
                            • Issues: If positive, right to terminate pregnancy? Not always 100% accurate. If positive, family be tested? Not safe, miscarriage 1%. Discrimination from employers/ insurance co/s?
                          • Children  + Adults can be tested to see if they carry genetic disorders, e.g. before they want to have children
                      • bb- homozygous
                        • Bb- heterozygous
                    • Can be prevented
                      • Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (embryos testedin IVF)
                        • Issues: If positive, right to terminate pregnancy? Not always 100% accurate. If positive, family be tested? Not safe, miscarriage 1%. Discrimination from employers/ insurance co/s?
                      • Children  + Adults can be tested to see if they carry genetic disorders, e.g. before they want to have children
            • Each gene is a code for making a certain protein.
              • Proteins are building blocks of cells. Having different versions of proteins means that we end up with diff. characteristics
                • Phenotype- The characteristics an organism displays
                  • Genotype- The genetic make-up of an organism
              • Structural Proteins:  skin, hair, blood, cytoplasm in cells, collagen
              • Functional Proteins: enzymes for digestion , amylase for breaking of starch to maltose
          • (23rd chro.) X and Y determine sex
            • SRY is the main genetic switch for the sexual developmentof the human male
          • Half of a child's chromosome comes from each parent= resembles BOTH, never identical
            • Clones are genetically identical organisms
              • Identical twins= clones.  (Fertilisation as normal. Embryos splits into 2. 2 seperate embryos develop. Both genetically identical)
              • Natural clones - Assexual repro.
                • Bacteria- divide into 2 etc.
                • Plants- runners move out of base= clones at tips. - Bulbs= grow to form clones
                • Animals- Fm. greenfly can just lay eggs = more fm. clones
      • Stem Cells
        • Embryonic stem cells
          • Unspecialised cells found in early embryos
            • Removed from embryo= embryo destroyed. Can turn into any type of cells, e.g. beating heart muscle cells
        • Adult Stem Cells
          • Unspecialised cells found in adult animals
            • Involved in Maintaining and Repairing old/damaged TISSUES & can specialise in many cell types by extractin their bone marrow

    Comments

    Sasha Dean

    a very good summary


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