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  • CDS
    • higher or melodic pitch
    • more frequent and longer pauses
    • slower and clearer speech
    • repetition
    • grammatically simpler sentences
    • more questions (including tag questions and known answer questions) as well as providing the answer and the question
    • use of nouns rather than pronouns (e.g. 'Mummy is going to fetch a drink' instead of more ambiguous and potentially confusing 'I am going to get a drink')
    • RECASTS - where the caregiver might repeat a child's utterance but provide a correct version of what the child had said ( C: I runned  CG: You ran?  demonstrates correct form w/o explicitly correcting them
    • MITIGATED IMPS. - where a command is given but disguised in the form of a Q (e.g. 'shall we get this homework done?')
    • EXPANSION - where the CGs might elaborate on the utterance given by the child
    • more frequent use of plural pronouns
    • use of diminutives - words that suggest a smaller version of what is being described (doggie) can also suggest affection (a nickname)


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