Causewayed enclosures

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  • Created by: Canar
  • Created on: 09-02-16 14:45
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  • Causewayed enclosures
    • Windmill hill culture-S and SE Britain.
      • 80+ sites across S Britain
    • Hambledon Hill
      • Evidence of ritual pits within enclosure containing exotic and imported items
        • Stone axes from Cornwall, Jadeite axes from Brittany. Trade.
        • Setting of posts found
          • Rectangular hut?
      • Suggestions of them being excarnation sites.
      • Possible 150 bodies within area
      • May have had several purposes.
        • Open cemetery at centre but settlement and fields on southern arm and defensive.
          • Arrow head in spine of man with child underneath.
      • 48,000 man hours estimated.
      • Two actual causewayed enclosures.
        • Two long barrows in association
      • 2850BC
        • Largest with diameter of 365m
      • Single grape pip leaf fragment found
        • Evidence of trade?
          • Vine cultivation
      • Ditches contained significant amounts of pottery and red deer antler picks
        • In one of the ditches human skulls had been placed at the very bottom.
          • Ancestral offering?
      • Analysis of animal bones indicate they were eaten in late summer and early autumn-hence seasonal usage idea.
    • Likely uses
      • Defensive camps
        • unlikely as have gaps, low banks, bad situations etc. Also unlikely needed by mobile population.
      • Camps
        • Periodic spots of use. Ceremonial practices at certain times of the year.
        • Meeting places-trade, marriages etc.
      • Memory of previous life of migrants from Linearbandkeramic.
      • Defleshing areas
      • Ceremonial sites.
        • Liminal sites-bid farewell to the dead. somewhere between life and death.
      • Different material in different parts-causewayed enclosures divided up. Hambledon hill.
      • Lots of animal bones in ditches, particulalry from cattle.
        • Kraals?
        • feasting?
        • Whole animals in some cases-not just discarded-ritualistic burial
    • Normally located on hills or somewhere with good field of view.
      • Other examples
        • Maiden castle and Knap hill
      • Interrupted ditches
        • Done over long time?


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