Causes of WWI (sources)

Responsiblity for the outbreak of the First World War in 1914

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  • Causes of WWI (sources)
    • German Aggressive policies
      • Weltpolitik
      • Flottenpolitik
        • Wilhelm's attempt to make a bigger Navy than England - "Fleet politics"
      • Aggressive diplomacy
        • Bosnian Crisis 1908-09
        • Moroccan Crisis 1905-06
        • 2nd Moroccan Crisis 1911
      • Triple Alliance
      • Fritz Fischer Thesis
        • Germany to blame
          • Germany's ruling class = make G a world power = ready to wage war of aggression to achieve this.
          • Knew G 'blank cheque' to Au = serious risk of provoking a general war.
    • Germany not alone in provocative behaviour
      • France
        • Defeat by Prussia 1870 + loss of A-L = revenge
      • Austria
        • Multi-national state = threat of independance
          • Aim: self-preservation + control of status
      • Russia
        • Late 1800s expansionist ambitions = Far East
          • Russia back Balkan states in 1912 war
      • Britain
        • Concerned to protest colonial possessions
          • Threats from French + Russian colonies
      • Italy
        • Sought colonies
          • Weakest of the 'Great Powers'
      • German interventions  = desire to impress/distract public opinion at home.
      • "Miscalculated" interpretation = German fear of Russia
        • 'Preventive War' = no act of aggression
    • Long-term causes
      • Nationalism = your country is best
      • Imperialism = a desire to conquer other countries
      • Alliances
        • Triple Alliance = 1882
        • Triple Entente = 1907
      • Militarism = military matters influence countries policies.
        • Schlieffen Plan 1897
          • 9 yrs to finalise. Presented in 1905. Revised in 1906.
  • The July Crisis
    • Causes of WWI (sources)
      • German Aggressive policies
        • Weltpolitik
        • Flottenpolitik
          • Wilhelm's attempt to make a bigger Navy than England - "Fleet politics"
        • Aggressive diplomacy
          • Bosnian Crisis 1908-09
          • Moroccan Crisis 1905-06
          • 2nd Moroccan Crisis 1911
        • Triple Alliance
        • Fritz Fischer Thesis
          • Germany to blame
            • Germany's ruling class = make G a world power = ready to wage war of aggression to achieve this.
            • Knew G 'blank cheque' to Au = serious risk of provoking a general war.
      • Germany not alone in provocative behaviour
        • France
          • Defeat by Prussia 1870 + loss of A-L = revenge
        • Austria
          • Multi-national state = threat of independance
            • Aim: self-preservation + control of status
        • Russia
          • Late 1800s expansionist ambitions = Far East
            • Russia back Balkan states in 1912 war
        • Britain
          • Concerned to protest colonial possessions
            • Threats from French + Russian colonies
        • Italy
          • Sought colonies
            • Weakest of the 'Great Powers'
        • German interventions  = desire to impress/distract public opinion at home.
        • "Miscalculated" interpretation = German fear of Russia
          • 'Preventive War' = no act of aggression
      • Long-term causes
        • Nationalism = your country is best
        • Imperialism = a desire to conquer other countries
        • Alliances
          • Triple Alliance = 1882
          • Triple Entente = 1907
        • Militarism = military matters influence countries policies.
          • Schlieffen Plan 1897
            • 9 yrs to finalise. Presented in 1905. Revised in 1906.
    • 28th June Archduke Franz Ferdinand killed.
    • 5th July Aus- Hun asked for 'blank cheque'
    • 23rd July Aus-Hun sends Serbia an ultimatum
    • 25th July Serbia agrees bar 1 demand
    • 1st Aug Russia mobilises
    • 3rd Aug G declares war on Russia
    • 4th Aug Fr declares war on G.
  • Other Countries
    • Br intervened in Morocco
      • German foreign + defense policies = not highly co-ordinated = no clear/agreed strategy
        • European Great Powers = collectively responsible
          • 28th Aus-Hun declares war on Serbia
            • The July Crisis
              • 28th June Archduke Franz Ferdinand killed.
              • 5th July Aus- Hun asked for 'blank cheque'
              • 23rd July Aus-Hun sends Serbia an ultimatum
              • 25th July Serbia agrees bar 1 demand
              • 1st Aug Russia mobilises
              • 3rd Aug G declares war on Russia
              • 4th Aug Fr declares war on G.
          • 4th Aug Br declares war on G
            • "For a scrap of paper, Great Britain is going to make war?" Bethmann-Hollweg
              • 4th Aug Br declares war on G
              • 1839 Treaty of Washington

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