Causes of the Irish Question

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  • Causes of the Irish Question
    • 95% of Irish Land was owned by members of the (Anglican) Church of Ireland
    • Catholic Emancipation
      • 1823- The Catholic Association set up by Daniel O'Connell to campaign for an end to discrimination
      • 1828- O'Connell won a by-election in County Clare but couldn't take his seat because of the discriminatory Penal Laws
      • Catholic Emancipation was granted by English Govt as they could see Ireland sliding into revolt otherwise
    • Repeal Movement
      • Act of Union (uniting Ireland with the rest of Britain) introduced 1801
      • O'Connell campaigned for the repeal (taking back) of the Union, although still loyal to the monarchy, and argued for a Catholic-dominated Parliament in Dublin
      • Repeal movement didn't gain much support from Parliament, House of Commons (523 votes to 38)
      • 1843- meeting in County Meath attended by crowds of nearly 3/4 of a million people
      • Unionism grew out of opposition to this, eg The Orange Order 1795
    • Agrarian Violence
      • 1830- Farmers began to become violent in the "Tithe Wars" against having to pay taxes to the Church of Ireland
      • Secret societies known as "whiteboys" were formed and the government became more repressive in putting them down
      • June 1831- In County Meath 12 protesters and 11 police were killed
        • Government response was coercion and conciliation, with the Peace Preservation Act 1833 and the Tithe Rent Change Act 1838
    • Young Ireland
      • A group formed to support the Repeal campaign
      • Through the newspaper "The Nation", Thomas Davis, John Dillon and William O'Brien argued for cultural unity, education and complete seperation form Britain
      • 1846- They split with O'Connell as they advocated the use of violence
      • 1848- Led a spectacularly unsuccessful revolution known as the "Battle of Widow McCormack's Cabbage Patch"

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