Causes and Impacts of Flooding - S. Asia, 2007

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  • Causes and Impacts of Flooding - South Asia, 2007
    • Background
      • South Asia has a monsoon climate - 80% of rain falls in four months
      • Low lying land - Bangladesh, 90% of land is less than 10m above sea level
      • Melting snow and ice from Himalayas increase Brahmaputra's discharge
    • Causes
      • Physical
        • Monsoon arrived suddenly after v. dry summer
        • V. heavy rainfall, Assam had 900mm of rain in July
        • Long duration of rainfall saturated the soil, increasing surface runoff and discharge
        • Peak discharges of Rivers Ganges and Brahmaputra coincided
      • Human
        • Deforestation in Nepal meant less rainfall was intercepted
        • Growth of urban areas increased surface runoff
    • Impacts
      • Social
        • Over 2000 people died and was so high because many people refused to evacuate
        • Lack of clean drinking water due to comtamination - over 100 000 caught water borne diseases
        • 25 million made homeless
      • Economic
        • The cost of the flood was estimated at USD $1 billion
        • Factories were closed around Dhaka and many became unemployed
        • 550 000 hectares of land couldn't be planted on at peak times due to flooded fields
      • Environmental
        • Flood depostited fertile silt on the flood plain
        • Rivers were polluted by sewage


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