Iran-Iraq War 1980-1988

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  • Iran - Iraq War 1980-1988
    • 8 year long war
      • around 500k soldiers killed
      • around 500k civillians killed
      • longest middle eastern war of the 20th century
    • Causes
      • Saddam Hussein
        • secured presidency in iraq
        • wanted to consolidate baath sunni party
      • ayatollah Khomeini came to power in Iranian revolution
        • called for saddam's overthrow
      • both countries relied on oil exports
        • iran had great access to al shatt al arab river
          • Iraq allowed iran to use it in Algiers agreement
            • Iraq wanted to push iran back and have the waterway
              • if successful, they could even take Iranian oil fields
                • increase Iraq's size influence and prestige in middle east
      • low on time
        • September 1980 was a good time to start
          • iran wasn't ready for war
            • army was purged of officers and soldiers loyal to the shah
              • believed to be militarily weak and demoralised
            • country's economy was in destruction due to western countries boycotting trade
              • due to hostage crisis in American embassy
    • nature
      • iran mobilised revolutionary population
        • pushed Iraq back away from the border
      • iran's superior navy
        • deployed into Persian gulf
          • blockaded iraqs ports
            • couldn't export
              • oil
              • supplies required by sea
      • Syria sided with iran
        • they were enemies with iraq
          • shut off Iraq's main oil pipeline
            • ran from Iraqi oil field to Syrian port
            • cost $5 billion per month
              • Iraq couldn't continue the war
                • many other middle eastern countries had to support saddam
                  • Saudi arabia
                  • egypt
                  • jordan
                    • had a route for Iraq's imports and exports
                      • avoided blockaded Persian gulf route
                  • kuwait
                  • qatar
                  • bahrain
                  • United Arab Emirates
                • other supporters
                  • Russia
                    • supplied weapons
                  • USA
                    • intelligence from satellites
                    • naval escorts
                      • through blockaded Persian gulf
                        • had a route for Iraq's imports and exports
                          • avoided blockaded Persian gulf route
      • ended
        • july 20th 1988
          • ceasefire called UN resolution 598 universally approved
    • consequences
      • neither country succeeded in primary aim of defeating teach other's military
      • both countries' economies were detroyed
        • damage to oil infrastructure
        • military expenses
          • each spent around $500 billion
            • less money for education and health supplies
      • slowed economic development
        • recovery was significantly affected
      • Iranian broadcast about ceasefire
        • Khomeini regretted accepting it
          • Khomeini still kept a good reputation
            • iran remained shiite
            • when he died in 1989, 12 million people wanted to see his body passing by
      • Iraqi government support declined
        • riots and strikes
        • despite strictness and control
        • because even the army was unhappy by the war
          • blamed saddam
            • many traitors excecuted
      • despite debts of around $130 billion
        • saddam invested in weapons
          • to use on Kuwait later

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