Causes of French revolution Terror 1793

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  • Causes of Terror 1793
    • Federal revolt
      • Movement: anti-jac; anti- paris; anti-centralism
      • 60 deputies revolted
        • serious  conflicts:
          • Marseille
          • Lyon
            • 2 months: gave in Oct 1793
            • renamed 'town without a name'
              • ville sans nome
          • Toulon
            • Handed over to Br...retaken Dec 1793
          • Bordeaux
      • Convention losing control, therefore used terror. (destroy enemy within)
    • Economic
      • War increased prices
        • convetion printed more assignats to pay for it
          • inflation
      • Peasants reluctant to sell grain
        • hoarding
          • Led to emergency measures:      -Army rev      -Max. price     -Death penalty
      • Vendee (caused by economic factors)
        • Convention face journees
          • Sept 4-5 1793
            • "terror is order of day"
              • convention forced to pass it by Sans-c
          • Sans-c/ mobs powerbase=paris commune + hotel de ville
    • Role of Robespierre + Jacobins
      • dominant figure on CPS
        • believed ends justified means... hence despotism of liberty.
        • Cult of supreme being: Rob, Dictator?
      • believed ends justified means... hence despotism of liberty.
      • Responded to Sans-c with law of suspects
        • Gave CPS unlimited powers of arrest (rev. tribunals)
      • GREAT TERROR
        • Introduced Law of Frumaire (Dec 93)
          • increased CPS power
          • Used to remove rival factions
            • (april) Danton +Desmoulins
            • Hebert
        • centralisationof terror... Rev tribunal was only in Parris
          • Used to remove rival factions
            • (april) Danton +Desmoulins
            • Hebert
        • Cult of supreme being: Rob, Dictator?
    • War (Main cause)
      • VS Aus/ Prussia/ GB
      • Went badly 1793
        • Lafayette/ Dumourez got blamed... Girodins got blamed --> Fell June 1793..
          • Replaced by more radical Jacobins (ie. Robespierre)
            • In turn, Made terror more likely
        • Atmosphere of panic: esp. in Paris.
          • Threat of defeat used to justify terror.
            • "Terror is the order of day
              • Despotism of Liberty --> CPS/ Law of suspects (Sept 1793)
        • Caused strain on economy 1793
          • levee en masse
            • Paris short of food. Sans-C not happy
              • Maximum set up: upset peasants: led to hoarding.
                • enforced by Armee revolt- seize grain...led to federal revolt.
    • Vendee
      • Vendee was first use of terror (Feb 1793)
      • What was it?
        • Hoarders/ refactory priests hiding there
          • Rep on mission and terror needed to root them out!
            • first internal threat to revolution
        • 200k died. 52% of population
      • first internal threat to revolution
      • took 30k away from war front... caused problems with war and added to need of terror.

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