psychology topic E causes of criminality

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  • causes of criminality
    • social
      • self- fulfilling prophecy
        • this theory is that if someone expects us and treats us like a criminal, then we would be a criminal.
        • Rosenthal and Jacobson examined whether school achievement could be self-fulfilling
      • family patterns
        • DIVORCE  could lead to criminality because when a parent leave the boy or girl had now mother/father figure.
        • SEPERATION FROM BIRTH MUM BEFORE AGE OF 2 - Bowlby (1946) questioned 44 boy offenders about their crimes.
        • BIG FAMILYS - Farrigton (2002) found that you are more likely to be a criminal if you have a bigger family  size.
          • reasons are - have a lack of attention - low income - and less educational opportunities
      • childrearing strategies
        • INDUCTION - this is when you explain to a child what they have done wrong and the consequences of their actions
        • LOVE WITHDRAWL- this is when a parent stops showing their child affection to make them feel guilty.
        • POWER ASSERTION - this is when a parent shouts or is aggressive . this could lead to low self-esteem
    • biological
      • genetics
        • family studies, family trees allows us to compare.
        • adoption studies support this - Medmick (1984)
      • XXY chromosomes
        • Theeilguard - (1984)  - isn't a clear link between XXY and criminal, they are rear and hard to examine - XXY leads to slower learing so could be to do with their lack of  education.
      • Twin studies
        • Christiansen (1977), found that if one identical twin was a criminal there would be 52% the other one would be too.


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