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  • Need to be a causal link between df actions and outcome
    • Causation
      • Factual and legal causation must be satisfied
      • Factual causation
        • 'But For' rule
        • but for the dfs actions, would the harm have been caused?
      • Legal causation
        • Concerned with if the dfs actions were the operation and substantial cause
        • R v Smith
      • Break in the chain of causation can be caused by:
        • Novus actus interveniens - R v White
        • Thin skull rule - R v Hayward
        • Medical intervention
        • Naturally occurring intervention - R v Perkins
        • Victims own actions - R v Blaue, R v Roberts
        • Third party intervention


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