Carriage of Carbon Dioxide

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  • Carriage of Carbon dioxide
    • In red blood cells
      • CO2 released from repiring tissues
        • diffuses into red blood cells
          • combines with water under the presence of the enzyme carbonic anhydrase to from carbonic acid
            • acid dissociates into hydrogen ions and hydro-carbonate ions
              • hydro-carbonate ions diffuse out of the blood cell into plasma
                • Chloride Shift - charge inside the RBC is maintained by Cl- ions moving into them
              • H+ is taken up be haemoglobin to form haemoglobic acid - acting as a buffer
                • oxy-haemoglobin dissociates under influence of hydrogen ions, releasing oxygen into the blood plasma
    • Bohr Effect
      • when CO2 is present in RBC's, it displaces the oxygen in oxy-haemoglobin
        • so more oxygen is released to the tissues
      • where tissues are respiring more, more CO2 will be present
        • so more H+ will be produced in RBC's, so more oxygen will be released
          • when more C02 is present, haemoglobin is less saturated with oxygen, making the dissociation curve shift downwards and to the right
    • Transportation
      • 10% combines with haemoglobin to from carbamino-haemoglobin
      • 5% dissolved directly into blood plasma
      • 85% in the from of hydrogen carbonates ions
        • this is in the plasma


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