Carniferous limestone G1

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  • Carniferous limestone
    • Characteristics
      • Sedimentary, permeable to pervious
      • forms upland hills in the UK eg. Pennines
      • Horizontal joints called bedding planes between the layers of limestone. The joints promote freeze-thaw
      • tough resistant rock, pervious rock
    • Formed
      • high grounds with exposure of bare rock & steep sided valleys
      • Hard, grey, full of fossils (coral) , well jointed & permeable
    • Limestone gorges formed
      • limestone frozen underground
      • During last Ice Age
      • meltwater streams flowed on the surface
      • eroding river beds
    • Swallow holes formed
      • chemical weathering causes surface of limestone pavement to be relatively smooth
      • Water flowing over adjacent impermeable rocks disappears down holes in the limestone
    • Resurgence formed
      • when water flowing underground emerges onto the ground from a small cave
  • Water flowing over adjacent impermeable rocks disappears down holes in the limestone

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