Caregiver- infant interactions in humans

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  • Caregiver-infant interactions in humans
    • Reciprocity
      • The process in which a behavior is matched during an interaction
      • Meltzoff and Moore
        • Aims
          • To study imitation in babies 12-27 days old
        • Design
          • Controlled observation
        • Method
          • Observer watches video of person and baby twice. They then assessed inter rater and inter observer reliability which was a correlation of .92 (very high). Then recorded how many times they saw mouth opening, mouth shutting, tongue in, tongue out
        • Findings
          • There was an association between infant behaviour and the adult model. Babies as early as 12 days old can imitate adult behaviour
    • Interactional synchrony
      • Condor and Sander
        • Aims
          • To investigate how babies would co-ordinate their actions in time with adult speech, taking turns to contribute to the conversation
        • Design
          • Observational
        • Method
          • Frame by frame analysis of films of babies movements to sound recordings of adult conversation
        • Findings
          • Babies would move in time with the rhythm of the conversation, engaging in subtle forms of turn taking
      • Relates to the timing and pattern of the interaction. The interaction is rhythmic and can include infant and caregiver mirroring each other behaviours and emotions
    • Evaluation
      • A weakness is that the context could affect the behaviour of the children because it is done in unnatural settings. Therefore it lacks internal reliability because it should be done in a more natural setting such as the childs home
      • A strength is that it is controlled observation. Both mother and infant were filmed from multiple angles. This ensures that the details of the behaviour can be recorded and analysed. therefore it has a good validity because the researchers can control the variables well
      • A weakness is some practical issues, the need for fewer but shorter observational periods because of limited waking periods. Therefore it lacks internal validity because it is not constant observation

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