Caregiver - Infant Interaction

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  • Caregiver -  Infant Interaction
    • Reciprocity
      • Research by Jaffe et al showed how infants coordinated actions as kind of conversation. Takes action in turns, this is an example of reciprocity
        • Brazelton suggested that basic rhythm was precursor to later interaction. Regularity of the infants behaviour allows caregiver to anticipate behaviour. This sensitivity develops into later atttchment.
    • Interactional Synchronty
      • Meltzoff and Moore discovered babies as young as 2-3 weeks imitate certain facial/hand expressions.
        • Later study found same behaviour in infants as old as 3 days. Shows behaviour is innate, not learnt
    • Real or Pseudo Imitation
      • Meltzoff and Moore proposed this imitation was real. However Jean Piaget suggested that true imitation did not occur until towards the end of the first year and anything before was just response training. Piaget's view was that it is only pseudo imitation being shown.
        • Evidence to Meltzoff and Moore's 'Real' imitation. Study took place using infants of 2 months and video tape of mothers facial actions so no response could be perceived. When mother showed no response infants showed distress. Supports that it is real imitation.
    • Evaluation
      • Failure to replicate
        • P-The study has not been replicated since.
          • E-Koepke  et al failed to replicate this study however Meltzoff and Moore argued that this was due to lack of controlled measures.
            • E-Marian et al found that infants could not distinguish between live videotapes and the mothers. However accepted this may be due to the procedure rather than infants ability.
              • L--The study has not been replicated since and as such may not be valid
                • Failure to replicate
                  • P-The study has not been replicated since.
                    • E-Koepke  et al failed to replicate this study however Meltzoff and Moore argued that this was due to lack of controlled measures.
                      • E-Marian et al found that infants could not distinguish between live videotapes and the mothers. However accepted this may be due to the procedure rather than infants ability.
                        • L--The study has not been replicated since and as such may not be valid
        • Value of research
          • P-The importance of this imitative behaviour is that it later forms a basis for further social interaction.
            • E-Meltzoff and Moore developed 'like me' theory.
              • E- As a result infants develop and understanding of what people are feeling and thinking.
                • L-This is extremely important in future social interactions and forming relationships.
                  • Value of research
                    • P-The importance of this imitative behaviour is that it later forms a basis for further social interaction.
                      • E-Meltzoff and Moore developed 'like me' theory.
                        • E- As a result infants develop and understanding of what people are feeling and thinking.
                          • L-This is extremely important in future social interactions and forming relationships.
                          • Step 1-Infant makes connection between what they see and their imitation.
                            • Step 2-Infants associate their own actions with their underlying mental state.
                              • Step 3-Infants project own internal experiences onto others performing similar acts.
                                • Infants begin to understand how others are feeling due to their actions.
                                  • This relates to 'The Theory of Mind' - comprehending mental states of others.
                • Step 1-Infant makes connection between what they see and their imitation.
                  • Step 2-Infants associate their own actions with their underlying mental state.
                    • Step 3-Infants project own internal experiences onto others performing similar acts.
                      • Infants begin to understand how others are feeling due to their actions.
                        • This relates to 'The Theory of Mind' - comprehending mental states of others.

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