The CV system

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  • The CV system
    • The (long term) effects of regular exercise
      • Decreased resting heart rate
        • The heart of a fit person beats less times because it get stronger with training
      • A faster heart recovery rate
      • Increased stroke volume
        • The volume of blood pumped out of the heart in 1 beat
          • This will increase at both rest and work because the heart becomes more efficient a result of regular training
      • Cardiac output
    • Rest and Recovery
      • Rest is essential to recovery and to allow the body to adapt
        • Rest allows the heart to grow in size and thickness
        • Rest allows the number of capilleries to increase
      • An expamle: two days training, then a days rest, followed by three days training, and another rest day. In total this is five exercise sessions and 2 days rest
    • Diet and the cardio- vascular system
      • High cholesterol:  cholesterol is a fatty substance carried in the blood by lipoproteins.
        • Low density lipoprotein(LDL)
          • Referred to as 'bad cholesterol'
          • Consists mainly of fat
            • Is the major cause of cholesterol in the blood
              • Blockagesin the blood vessels mean that the heart has to work harder, resulting in an increase in blood pressure.
              • Can lead to a build-up of plaque which can restrict blood flow
        • High density lipoprotein(HDL)
          • Referred to as 'good cholesterol'
          • Contains more protein than fat
            • Carries cholesterol away from the arteries to the liver, which removes it from the body
          • Foods rich in HDL include; fruit, vegetables  whole grains and legumes (e.g peas and beans)
            • Your 5 a Day
        • High cholesterol
          • Caused by having a diet high in LDL
            • Cholesterol is only a problem when the levels in the blood are too high.
          • This can cause a build up of fatty deposits in the arteries
            • Heart problems
            • Increase the risk of coronary heart disease.
            • Narrow the arteries
              • Heart attacks
    • Recreational Drugs
      • Smoking (nicotine) (tobacco)
        • Raises blood pressure because it releases adrenaline
        • Reduces HDL levels (good cholesterol)
        • Increases blood intensity
          • Can lead to blood clots with cause heart attacks and strokes
      • Alcohol
        • Raises blood pressure
          • Binge drinking and too much alcohol can lead to long term effects
    • The immediate affects of exercise
      • Body temperature increase
        • Muscles are working hard which generates heat
        • The average body temperature is between 36.4'c and 37.2'c
      • You sweat
        • Your body automatically tries to cool you down when you get hot
          • Hot conditions increase sweating
        • Sweat (salt and water) comes out of the pores in the skin and evaporates when it reaches the surface.
          • Salt and water need to be replaced
            • Cramps
            • Less urine produced
            • Faint or collapse
            • For example Marathons have water and energy stations in case of this
      • Muscles begin to ache
        • The muscles need energy and oxygen
        • Energy comes from food which is converted into glucose
      • Other  Factors
        • Stressful Situations
          • Can cause more adrenaline
            • Adrenaline
              • This is a hormone released in anticipation of exercise
        • Eating
        • Adrenaline
          • This is a hormone released in anticipation of exercise
  • Breathing becomes faster and deeper
    • Need more oxygen to your lungs
    • The immediate affects of exercise
      • Body temperature increase
        • Muscles are working hard which generates heat
        • The average body temperature is between 36.4'c and 37.2'c
      • You sweat
        • Your body automatically tries to cool you down when you get hot
          • Hot conditions increase sweating
        • Sweat (salt and water) comes out of the pores in the skin and evaporates when it reaches the surface.
          • Salt and water need to be replaced
            • Cramps
            • Less urine produced
            • Faint or collapse
            • For example Marathons have water and energy stations in case of this
      • Muscles begin to ache
        • The muscles need energy and oxygen
        • Energy comes from food which is converted into glucose
      • Other  Factors
        • Stressful Situations
          • Can cause more adrenaline
          • Eating

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