cardiovascular disease

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  • cardiovascular  disease
    • heart attacks
      • heart muscle supplied with blood by the coronary arteries
      • if the coronary artery becomes blocked by a blood clot an area of the heart muscle becomes cut off from the blood supply .
      • the loss of blood supply causes myocardial infarction aka heart attcak
      • heart attacks can cause damage and death to heart tissue.
      • symptoms of a heart attack include chest pains , sweating and shortness for breath
      • complete heart failure can occur as a result from a heart attack
    • stroke
      • rapid loss of brain function due to a disruption in the blood supply to the brain
      • this can be caused by a blood clot
    • deep vein thrombosis
      • caused by prolonged inactivity
    • coronary heart disease
      • have lots of atheromas in coronary artery's.
    • lifestyle factors
      • diet
        • high in saturated fat increases risk of CVD
        • high cholesterol
        • high in salt  increases risk of cvd as it increases chances of high blood pressure
      • high blood pressure
        • increase risk of damage to artery walls
        • increase risk or atheroma formation
        • excessive alcohol consumption,stress and diet can all cause high bp
      • smoking
        • carbon monoxide
          • combines with haemoglobin and reduces amount of oxygen carried by blood
        • nicotine
          • makes platelets sticky increasing chance of blood clots forming
        • decreases amount of antioxidants in the blood
          • important in protecting cells from damage
      • inactivity
        • increase in bp
    • genetics- some people have particular alleles that make it moke likely for them to have high bp of high blood cholestrol and so they are more likely to suffer from CVD
    • age- risk increases as age iincreases
    • gender- men are 3 times more likely than women
    • cholestrol
      • lipid
      • require some for body to function normally
      • it needs to be attached to protein to be moved around , so the body forms lipoproteins
        • high density lipoproteins
          • mainly protein
          • transport cholestrol from body tissue to the liver where its recycled or excreted
          • function is to reduce blood cholestrol levelswhen the level is too high
        • low density lipoproteins
          • mainly lipid
          • transport cholestrol from the liver to the blood
          • function is to increase total blood cholestrol levels if they are low
    • treatments
      • educate people - e.g. diet and the risks associated with certain foods
      • food products are now labelled with nutritional information particular with the amount of saturated fats in the product
      • encouragement for people to stop smoking
      • antihypertensives
        • reduce B.P
        • less chance of damsge to arteries and so reduce the risk of atheromas forming
        • can cause palpitations, irregular heart ryhme , fasfaintring , headcahes and drowsiness
        • beta blockers, diuretics, vaso
      • plant statins
        • reduce blood cholestrol level
        • reduces atheroma formations
        • can reduce vitamin absorbtion in the gut :(
      • anticoagulants
        • reduce formation of blood cltots
        • prevent any existing blood clots from enlarging
        • can cause osteoporosis
      • platelet inhibitory drugs
        • prevent platelets clumping together
        • cause numerous side effects

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