cadiovascular system malfunctions

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  • cardiovascular system malfunctions: heart disease
    • coronary arteries become narrowed or clogged
      • cant supply enough blood to the heart
    • not enough oxygen carrying blood gets to the heart
      • heart responds with pain called angina
        • angina- pain usually felt in the chest or left arm/ shoulder
      • when blood supply is completely cut off
        • = heart attack
        • part of the heart begins to die
        • some parts may be permanently damaged
    • symptoms
      • shortness of breath
      • heaviness
      • tigntness
      • pain
      • burning
      • pressure
    • causes
      • heredity
        • genes identified to cause chd
      • high cholestrol
        • LDL bad cholestrol
        • fats on the walls of arteries
      • tobacco abuse
        • reduce oxygen supply to blood vessels
      • obesity
        • increases likelihood of high blood pressure/ cholestrol
      • high blood pressure
        • hypertension, strain on the vessel walls
      • stress
        • leads to constriction of blood vessels
    • diagnostic techniques
      • angiogram
        • look inside coronary arteries
          • see if they are narrowed
        • helps decide if treatment is needed
        • will be under local anaesthetic
          • flexible tube passed through the artery
            • dye passed through blood vessels
              • show up narrowed areas
      • blood pressure monitoring
        • if too high vessels can be damaged
        • if too low can be dangerous for vital organs
        • measured with sphygmomanometer
      • ECG traces
        • electrical activity within the heart detected
          • attach electrodes to the limbs
            • shows info about heart muscle
    • effects
      • angina
        • difficulty with everyday tasks
      • low self esteem
        • changes to work
      • changes to social life
        • social isolation
    • treatment
      • ace inhibitors
        • used to treat high blood pressure
        • block activity of angiotensin II
        • narrows blood vessels
          • stops heart working so hard
        • improves blood flow
      • beta blockers
        • prevent angina
        • treat high blood pressure
        • slows down heart beat
      • heart bypass surgery
        • blood vessel inserted between aorta
        • allows blood to get around narrowed arteries
        • regular check ups after
      • lifestyle changes

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