The cardiovascular system

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  • Cardiovascular System
    • Cardiac values
      • Cardiac output(l)
        • Quantity of blood leaving the left ventricle per minute
      • Stroke volume(ml)
        • Quantity of blood leaving the left ventricle per contraction
      • Heart rate (BPM)
        • Beats per minute
    • Cardiac cycle
      • Superior/ inferior vena cava
        • Right Atrium
          • AV valve
            • Right Ventricle
              • Pulmonary artery
                • Lungs (gaseous exchange)
                  • Pulmonary vein
                    • Left atrium
                      • Av valve
                        • Left ventricle
                          • Aortic valve
                            • Aorta
                              • Body
                            • Semi-lumar valve
                              • Pulmonary valve
            • Artio-ventricular
              • Av valve
                • Left ventricle
                  • Aortic valve
                    • Aorta
                      • Body
                    • Semi-lumar valve
                      • Pulmonary valve
      • Atrial diastole
        • Atria fill will blood
        • Ventricular diastle
          • Ventricles fill with blood
      • Atrial systole
        • Atria contract
        • Ventricular systole
          • Ventricles contract
    • Conduction system
      • SA node
        • AV node
          • bundle of his
            • purkinjie fibre
    • Vasomotor control
      • Stimulates the sympathetic nervous system to either vasoconstrict or vasodialate the pre-capillary sphincetrs
      • Recieves information from chemorecptors and the baroreceptors
      • Oragns
        • At rest
          • Vasodialation of arteioles ans pre-capillary sphicters
          • increases blod flow to the organs
        • Duringn exercise
          • VCC increases sympathetic simultaion whihc vasoconsricts artioles and pre-acpilary sphncters
          • Decreases blood flo to the organs
      • Vascular Shunt Mechanism
        • Process of redistributing the blood suppl in the body during exercse
          • At rest
            • 15-20% of cardiac output is supplied to muscles
            • 80-85% of cardiac output is suppplied to organs
          • During exercise
            • 80-85% of cardiac outputis supplied to the muscles
            • Decrease blood flow to organs
            • Same blod supply to the brain
            • Increased blood supply to the skin surface during lighter work, but decreased as intensity increases
    • Venous Return
      • The transport of blood from the capillaries through veins, and then through the vena cava back to the heart
        • Arteries - thick muscular wall, oxygenated blood
          • Veins - thick muscle, deoxygenated blood
            • Capillaries  -  1 cell thick, gaseous exchange
              • Pre-capillary sphincters - slows blood for gaseous exchange
      • Muscle pump
        • Muscle contraction squeezes blood to the heart
      • Pocket valves
        • valves that prevent backflow
      • Smooth muscle
        • walls of the viens
      • Respiratory pump
        • deeper breathing forces blood tothe heart
      • Gravity
        • upper body blood flow is sided by gravity
    • Vascular Shunt Mechanism
      • Process of redistributing the blood suppl in the body during exercse
        • At rest
          • 15-20% of cardiac output is supplied to muscles
          • 80-85% of cardiac output is suppplied to organs
        • During exercise
          • 80-85% of cardiac outputis supplied to the muscles
          • Decrease blood flow to organs
          • Same blod supply to the brain
          • Increased blood supply to the skin surface during lighter work, but decreased as intensity increases

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