Cardiovascular Disease

  • Created by: India.02
  • Created on: 12-05-19 12:28
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  • Cardiovascular Disease
    • Coronary Heart Disease
      • Coronary arteries - supply blood to the muscle of the heart - get blocked by layers of fatty material building up
      • Arteries become narrow and blood flow is restricted - lack of oxygen to heart muscle - heart attack
    • Stents
      • Tubes that are inserted inside arteries - keep them open, making sure that blood can pass through to the heart muscles - keeps heart beating
      • Lower risk of heart attack in people with coronary heart disease - effective for a long time and recovery is quick
      • Risk of complications during operation and infection from surgery - also a risk of patients developing a blood clot near the stent - thrombosis
    • Statins
      • Cholesterol is an essential lipid that is needed in the body - too much bad cholesterol (LDL cholesterol) can cause health problems
        • Causes fatty deposits to form in the arteries - leads to CHD
      • Statins - drug that reduces the amount of bad cholesterol in bloodstream
        • Reduce risk of stroke, CHD and heart attacks - increase amount of beneficial cholesterol (HDL cholesterol - removes LDL from blood) - studies show that they may also prevent other diseases
        • Long term drug that must be taken regularly (they may forget) - negative side effects (kidney failure, liver damage, memory loss) - effect isn't instant
    • Artificial Heart
      • If there are no donor organs available or it isn't the best option - doctors will choose an artificial heart
        • Mechanical devices that pump blood for someone whose own heart has failed - usually a temporary fix to keep someone alive until a donor heart is available or to help someone recover, giving the heart time to heal
          • Less likely to be rejected compared to a donor heart - made from metals or plastics so body doesn't see them as foreign
          • The surgery can lead to bleeding and infection - don't work as well as healthy hearts - parts could wear out or the electrical motor could fail
          • Blood doesn't flow as smoothly, which can cause blood clots and strokes - patient must take drugs to thin their blood, which can cause problems with bleeding if they become hurt
    • Replacement Valves
      • Valves can be damaged or weakened by heart attacks, infection or old age
        • Damage may cause valve tissue to stiffen so it won't open properly - a valve may be leaky so blood will flow in both directions - blood won't circulate as effectively
      • Can be taken from humans or other mammals - biological valves - can also be man-made - mechanical valves
      • Less drastic than a whole heart transplant but the fitting is major surgery and there can be problems with blood clots
    • Artificial Blood
      • If someone loses a lot of blood, their heart can pump the remaining blood cells around the body, given that the volume can be topped up
      • A blood substitute (saline solution) - used to replace lost volume of blood
        • Safe if no air bubbles get into blood - can keep people alive and gives time to produce new cells - if not, the patient will need a blood transfusion
        • Scientists are working on products that can replace the need for a blood transfusion - carries oxygen around body - decrease risk of disease being passed on


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