Cardiovascular system

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  • Cardiovascular and respiratory system
    • Types of blood vessels
      • Arteries
        • Transport blood away from the heart, carry oxygenated blood to the body and de-oxygenated blood to the lungs, the largest is the aorta, high speed and high pressure
      • Veins
        • Transport blood back into the heart, carry deoxygenated blood from the bpdy to the heart, low speed and low pressure
      • Capillaries
        • small blood vessels that carries blood to body cells, 1 cell thick, carbon dioxide and oxygen cross under a process callled diffusion
    • Components of blood
      • Red blood cells 44%
        • contain haemoglobin, transport oxygen
      • White blood cella 0.5%
        • part of immune system, fights infection
      • Platelets 0.5%
        • crucial to stop excessive bleeding, prevents infection
      • Plasma 55%
        • without it blood wouldn't be able to flow around the body
    • Journey of Blood
      • vena-cava
        • right atrium
          • tri-cuspid valve
            • right ventricle
              • semi-lunar valve
                • pulmonary artery
                  • lungs
                    • pulmonary vein
                      • left atrium
                        • bi-cuspid valve
                          • left ventricle
                            • semi-lunar valve
                              • Aorta
                                • body
    • Heart Rate
      • 'the number of times the heart beats per minute'
      • maximum heart rate = 220 - your age
      • BPM
    • Blood pressure
      • the amount of force the blood vessels can apply
      • Systolic (top number) maximum pressure in the arteries when the heart contracts and pushes blood
      • Diastolic (bottom number) the pressure of the blood during the relaxation phase between heart beats
      • 100/60 to 120/80
      • systolic pressure/ diatolic pressure
    • Stroke volume and cardiac output
      • SV- the amount of blood pumped out of the heart by each ventricle per beat
      • CO- the amount of blood ejected out of the heart in one minute
      • Heart rate x stroke volume = cardiac output


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