Cardiac Cycle

A revision mindmap on cardiac cycle and other useful info.

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  • Cardiac Cycle
    • Electrocardiogram (ECG)
      • Problems Detected
        • Fibrilation
        • Irregular heart beat
        • Heart Attack
          • Myocardial Infarction
          • Heart respires fatty acids. These can only respire aerobically. If the coronary artery is blocked then part of the heart is starved and cells die.
      • Waves
        • Q,R,S: excitation of ventricles (AVN)
        • P: excitation of atrium (SAN)
        • T: Diastole
    • Heart Rate
      • one minute/time for one cycle
        • e.g. 60/0.8=75 bmp
      • Measured in Beats Per Minute (bpm)
    • Heart Muscle
      • Myogenic
        • Can initiate it's own contration
      • Cardiac muscle
    • Atrial Systole
      • Semi lunar valves shut, Atrial-Ventricular (AV) valves open.
      • 0.2 seconds
      • the wave of excitation is delayed when it hits the non conductive tissue, purkyne fibres/tissue.
        • Ventricle Systole
          • 0.2 seconds
          • Semi lunar valves open, AV valves shut to prevent back flow.
          • The left wall of the ventricle is thicker because it has to pump blood at a high pressure around the whole body.
          • When AV valves shut it causes a 'lup' sound.
          • The wave of excitation passes to the ventricles via the AVN and purkyne fibres.
            • These are special fibres that dont contract but pass the wave of excitation to the base of the heart, the apex of the heart.
          • the purkyne tissue/fibres then contract from the apex of the heart upwards to squeeze all the blood out of the heart into the arteries (aorta and pulmonary artery).
          • There is a delay of roughly 0.1s to ensure all the blood has left.
      • SAN transmits a wave of excitation through the atrium causing both atriums to contract and the blood is pushed into the ventricle (through the open AV valves).
    • Ventricle Systole
      • 0.2 seconds
      • Semi lunar valves open, AV valves shut to prevent back flow.
      • The left wall of the ventricle is thicker because it has to pump blood at a high pressure around the whole body.
      • When AV valves shut it causes a 'lup' sound.
      • The wave of excitation passes to the ventricles via the AVN and purkyne fibres.
        • These are special fibres that dont contract but pass the wave of excitation to the base of the heart, the apex of the heart.
      • the purkyne tissue/fibres then contract from the apex of the heart upwards to squeeze all the blood out of the heart into the arteries (aorta and pulmonary artery).
      • There is a delay of roughly 0.1s to ensure all the blood has left.
    • Diastole
      • Blood returns to the atrium of the heart via the pulmonary vein, superior vena cave and inferior vena cava.
      • Semi lunar valves shut causing a 'dup' sound.
        • AV valves are already shut
      • 0.4 seconds

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