carbon stores in different biomes

  • Created by: tzindoga
  • Created on: 13-11-18 11:42
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  • carbon stores in different biomes
    • Tropical rainforest carbon storage
      • found on and around the equator between 10 degrees north and 10 degrees south
      • factors affecting plant growth
        • competition for light and water
          • given rise to five layers of vegetation
            • under-canopy
            • field layer
            • continuous canopy
            • shrub
            • emergent trees
        • physical factors
          • temperature
            • average temperatures 25 degrees and 30 degrees
          • light
            • sun's rays concentrated
              • results in all year growth and carbon sequestration
          • precipitation
            • high and constant rainfall combined with warm temperatures provide optimum conditions for terrestrial plant growth and biomass carbon storage
        • plants evergreen & trees have large leaves that maximise transpiration and growth
        • C storage in animals is relatively high because of large habitats provided for plant sand animals
      • carbon storage and flows
        • 550 GtC stored in rainforest
        • trees store 180 tonnes per hectare above ground and 40 tonnes per hectare in the roots
          • soil carbon store = around 100 tonnes per hectare
        • exchange between atmosphere, biosphere & soil are rapid
          • warm humid conditions lead to rapid decomposition and quick release of CO2
            • litter store is a small biome
        • heavy rainfall
          • soils are leached and only retain limited amounts of organic carbon in the form of humus
    • Temperate grassland carbon storage
      • found between 30 degrees and 50 degrees north of the equator
      • lack of rainfall is a major limiting factor preventing the growth
      • carbon storage and flows
        • store 2-10 tonnes of carbon per hectare
          • mainly stored below ground
        • exchange of carbon varies according to season
          • winter, grass dies back to their roots and photosynthesis ceases
          • spring, soil begins to warm
      • soil carbon store 100-200 tonnes of carbon
    • ecosystem carbon storage
      • total carbon stored in terrestrial biomes is around 3000 GtC
      • carbon stored in biomass of trees but a thick layer on the forest floor can also store significant amounts
        • coniferous forest stores more carbon than tropical rainforest globally because it's distributed across a greater area
        • biomass of tropical rainforest is greater than that of coniferous forest but doesn't cover a greater land area
      • green plants
        • stores 20% of earths carbon
        • in grasslands, biomass consists of root systems
      • animals
        • small role in carbon cycle
      • litter
        • fresh, undecomposed plant debris
        • leaf tissue account for 70% of litter in forests
      • soil
        • humus = black substance that remains in the soil after organic litter has decomposed

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