Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins and Enzymes

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  • Created by: lollypop
  • Created on: 05-05-13 15:57
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  • Carbohydrates,Lipids, Proteins + Enzymes
    • Carboyhdrates
      • All carbohydrates are made of units of sugar
      • Carbohydrates that contain only one sugar unit (e.g glucose) or two sugar units (e.g sucrose) are referred to as simple sugars
      • Complex carbohydrate (e.g starch and cellulose) are long chains of simple units of sugar bonded together
    • Lipids
      • Lipids are molecules consisting of three molecules of fatty acids joined to a molecule of glycerol
    • Proteins
      • Protein molecules are made up of long chains of amino acids. These long chains are folded to produce a specific shape that enables other molecules to fit into the protein
      • Proteins act as:
        • Structural components of tissue such as muscles
        • Hormones
        • Antibodies
        • Enzymes
    • Enzymes
      • Enzymes are biological catalysts. Catalysts increase the rate of reaction
      • The shape of an enzyme is vital for the enzymes function. High temperatures denature the enzyme, changing the shape of the active site
      • Different  enzymes work best at different pH values
      • Some enzymes work outside the body cells. The digestive enzymes are produced by specialised cells in the glands and in the lining of the gut. The enzymes then pass out of the cell into the gut, where they come to contact with food molecules. They catalyse the breakdown of large molecules into smaller molecules
      • Some microorganisms produce enzymes that pass out out of the cells. These enzymes have many uses in homes and industry.
      • In the home:
        • Biological detergents may contain protein digesting and fat digesting enzymes (proteases and lipases)
        • Biological Detergents are more effective at low temperatures that other types of detergent
      • in Industry
        • Proteases are used to 'pre-digest' the protein in some baby food
        • Carbohydrates are used to convert starch  onto sugar syrup
        • Isomerase is used to convert glucose syrup    into fractose syrup, which is much sweeter than glucose and therefore can be used in smaller quantities in slimming foods


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