Biology unit 1 synoptic essay

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  • Carbohydrates
    • C,H and O
    • Monosaccharides
      • Galactose
        • Lactose
          • Glucose
            • Monosaccharides
              • Galactose
                • Lactose
                  • Glucose
                    • Maltose
                      • Maltase
                    • Sucrose
                      • less reactive than glucose
                      • Non-reducing sugar
                      • Sucrase
                    • Photosynthesis and respiration
                  • In milk
                  • Lactase
              • Fructose
                • Sucrose
                  • less reactive than glucose
                  • Non-reducing sugar
                  • Sucrase
            • Maltose
              • Maltase
            • Photosynthesis and respiration
          • In milk
          • Lactase
      • Fructose
      • Organic molecules
        • Lipids
          • Add ethanol, then water, turns cloudy
          • C,H,O and P
          • Fatty Acids
            • R-COOH
            • Triglycerides (by condensation)
              • One fatty acid chain replaced with phosphate to create phospholipids
                • Cell Membrane
                  • Cells
                    • Mitochondria
                      • ETC of respiration
                        • Cristae
                          • Large Surface Area
                            • Fick's law
                              • Alveoli
                                • Gas exchange surface
                                • Short diffusion surface
                                • Large surface area
                                • Ventilation and blood flow maintain concentration gradient
                                • Elastic
                                  • Broken down by elastin
                        • Matrix
                          • DNA
                            • Nucleotides and polynucleotides
                            • Nucleoid contains loop DNA
                            • Down's syndrome is a whole chromosome mutation of chromosome 21 of which there is an extra copy. This occurs due to non-disjunction when spiundle fibres don't seperate properly. An unusual number of chromosomes is termed aneuploidy
                        • Cyanide inhibits the elctron transport chain in respiration by affecting the enzyme cytocrome c oxidase in the mitochondrial membrane
                        • Organelles including chloroplasts were once prokaryotes-endosymbiosis
                      • Nucleus
                        • DNA
                          • Nucleotides and polynucleotides
                          • Nucleoid contains loop DNA
                          • Down's syndrome is a whole chromosome mutation of chromosome 21 of which there is an extra copy. This occurs due to non-disjunction when spiundle fibres don't seperate properly. An unusual number of chromosomes is termed aneuploidy
                        • Nuclear envelope-double membrane with nuclear pores
                        • Nucleolus makes ribosomes
                          • Ribosomes
                            • Large and small subunits
                            • Smaller in Prokaryotic organisms
                              • Eukaryotic
                                • Endosymbiosis
                                  • Smaller in Prokaryotic organisms
                                    • Eukaryotic
                                      • Endosymbiosis
                                      • No internal membrane
                                      • Can fuse to form Biofilm
                                        • Causes caries
                                      • Flagellum
                                        • Powered by Cytoskeleton
                                          • Cells
                                            • Mitochondria
                                              • ETC of respiration
                                                • Cristae
                                                  • Large Surface Area
                                                    • Fick's law
                                                      • Alveoli
                                                        • Gas exchange surface
                                                        • Short diffusion surface
                                                        • Large surface area
                                                        • Ventilation and blood flow maintain concentration gradient
                                                        • Elastic
                                                          • Broken down by elastin
                                                • Matrix
                                                  • Cyanide inhibits the elctron transport chain in respiration by affecting the enzyme cytocrome c oxidase in the mitochondrial membrane
                                                  • Organelles including chloroplasts were once prokaryotes-endosymbiosis
                                                • Nucleus
                                                  • Nuclear envelope-double membrane with nuclear pores
                                                  • Nucleolus makes ribosomes
                                                    • Ribosomes
                                                      • Large and small subunits
                                                      • Can be attached to RER which processes polypeptides
                                                        • SER processes mainly lipids
                                              • Protein fibres
                                              • Transport
                                                • Transport
                                                  • Carrier and Channel proteins
                                                    • Facilitated diffusion
                                                    • Active Transport
                                                      • ATP
                                                      • Against concentration gradient
                                                      • Sodium potassium pump
                                                        • Cotransport
                                                          • Sodium is pumped out of the cell in the sodium potassium pump. Na+ then enters the epithelial cells of the small intestine along with glucose through a carrier protein by dfacillitated diffusion.
                                                            • Facilitated diffusion
                                                            • The glucose then diffuses into the blood capillaries by facillitated diffusion
                                                              • Treatment of cholera
                                                                • This causes water to leave the epithelial cells into the lumen by osmosis
                                                                • Oral rehydration therapy
                                                                  • ORS contains equal parts salt and glucose so that they enter the epithelial cells by cotransport
                                                                    • This reduces the water potential of the epithelial cells so water reenters from the lumen of the small intestine
                                                  • Diffusion
                                                    • Simple Diffusion
                                                      • Osmosis
                                                        • Hypo/hypertonic
                                                        • Water potential
                                                      • Lipid soluble or small molecules
                                                      • Cannot be turned off
                                                    • No energy
                                                  • Active Transport
                                                    • ATP
                                                    • Against concentration gradient
                                                    • Sodium potassium pump
                                                      • Cotransport
                                                        • Sodium is pumped out of the cell in the sodium potassium pump. Na+ then enters the epithelial cells of the small intestine along with glucose through a carrier protein by dfacillitated diffusion.
                                                          • The glucose then diffuses into the blood capillaries by facillitated diffusion
                                                            • Treatment of cholera
                                                              • This causes water to leave the epithelial cells into the lumen by osmosis
                                                              • Oral rehydration therapy
                                                                • ORS contains equal parts salt and glucose so that they enter the epithelial cells by cotransport
                                                                  • This reduces the water potential of the epithelial cells so water reenters from the lumen of the small intestine
                                              • Powers cell divison
                                                • Mitosis
                                                • Meiosis
                                            • Driven by H+ gradient across the membrane
                                            • Extension of the cell membrane
                                              • Cillia
                                                • Sweep mucus from lungs to enter the stomach
                                    • No internal membrane
                                    • Can fuse to form Biofilm
                                      • Causes caries
                                    • Flagellum
                                      • Powered by Cytoskeleton
                                        • Protein fibres
                                        • Transport
                                          • Transport
                                            • Carrier and Channel proteins
                                              • Diffusion
                                                • Simple Diffusion
                                                  • Osmosis
                                                    • Hypo/hypertonic
                                                    • Water potential
                                                  • Lipid soluble or small molecules
                                                  • Cannot be turned off
                                                • No energy
                                          • Powers cell divison
                                            • Mitosis
                                            • Meiosis
                                        • Driven by H+ gradient across the membrane
                                        • Extension of the cell membrane
                                          • Cillia
                                            • Sweep mucus from lungs to enter the stomach
                                    • Can be attached to RER which processes polypeptides
                                      • SER processes mainly lipids
                            • Phospholipid bilayer
                            • Type of fatty acids affect strength
                              • Cholesterol can strengthen
                            • Folded into microvill
                            • Fluid Mosaic model
                              • Proteins and carbohydrates on surface
                                • Integral
                                  • Structure
                                • Peripheral
                                  • Enzymes
                                    • Coenzymes are small molecules attached to enzymes, for example acetyl co enzyme A and NAD and FAD. They are chemically changed. They belong to a group called cofactors which include prosthetic groups eg. haem.
                                  • Receptors
                        • Insoluble
                          • Lots of slow release energy
                          • Storage
                        • Protection
                    • Glycerol
                      • Triglycerides (by condensation)
                        • One fatty acid chain replaced with phosphate to create phospholipids
                          • Cell Membrane
                            • Phospholipid bilayer
                            • Type of fatty acids affect strength
                              • Cholesterol can strengthen
                            • Folded into microvill
                            • Fluid Mosaic model
                              • Proteins and carbohydrates on surface
                                • Integral
                                  • Structure
                                • Peripheral
                                  • Enzymes
                                    • Coenzymes are small molecules attached to enzymes, for example acetyl co enzyme A and NAD and FAD. They are chemically changed. They belong to a group called cofactors which include prosthetic groups eg. haem.
                                  • Receptors
                        • Insoluble
                          • Lots of slow release energy
                          • Storage
                        • Protection
                      • Propan-1,3,5-triol
                  • Digestion
                    • Mouth
                      • Salivary amylase
                    • Oesophagus
                      • Peristalsis
                    • Stomach
                      • HCl and protease
                    • Small intestine
                      • Contains pancreatic juice which contains protease, amylase and lipase from the pancreas
                      • Also contains bile-secreted by the liver and stored in the gall bladder. It neutralises the stomach acid and breaks down lipids
                      • Fick's law
                        • Large surface area
                          • Villi and microvilli
                        • Short diffusion distance
                          • Blood capillaries close to the surface
                        • Concentration gradient
                          • Perostalsis in lumen
                          • Blood flow to capillaries
                    • Coeliac disease is an adverse reaction to eating gluten, the body attacks gluten as an autoimmune response which flattemns villi and prevents food being digested properly. The body attacks gliadin by producing antibodies. The disease is associated with many gtenetic mutations
              • Lungs
                • Lung diseases
                  • Asthma
                    • Allergic response
                    • Mast cells release histamines
                    • Causes bronchioconstriction
                    • Epithelial cells secrete mucus
                  • Pulmonary tuberculosis
                    • Myobacterium tuberculosis
                    • Aerosol droplets from an infected person
                      • Bacteria invade epithelial cells of alveoli
                        • Bacteria remain dormant in tubercles
                          • Tubercles trigger an inflammatory response which causes fibrous scar tissue to form which reduces the elasticity of the alveoli and thickens their walls
                            • Bacteria become active and destroy epithelial cells, reducing alveoli surface area
                              • Bacteria can spread to other parts of the body
                    • Persistent cough and weight loss
                    • Risk increased by poor diet, AIDS and overcrowding so it is more common in poor countries
                  • Emphysema
                    • Caused by smoking
                    • Tar causes protease to be released
                      • This destroys elastin
                        • Alveoli aren't as elastic and may merge
                  • Lung cancer
                    • Can constrict bronchioles and alveoli reducing gas exchange
                    • Mutagenic agents
                  • Pulmonary Fibrosis
                    • Shortness of breath
                    • Particles of dust etc. cause an inflammatory response which creates scar tissue in the alveoli
                      • Thickens alveoli walls
                        • Reduces diffusion
                        • Reduces surface area
                          • Reduces diffusion
                        • Occupational disease
                      • Disease
                        • Coronary heart disease
                          • Heart
                            • Atria are at the top of the heart and  Ventricles are below. The atrioventricular valves prevent backflow of bood
                              • The valves are held in place byy valve tendons attached to papillary muscles
                              • Left and right are separated by the inter-ventricular septum
                                • Blood from the right goes to the lungs so the ventricle wall is a third of the thickness of the left ventricle
                            • Veins carry blood into the atria
                            • Arteries carry blood away from the ventricles
                            • Two coronary arteries supply oxygen to the cardiac muscle
                              • Blood returns via the coronary sinus
                            • Cardiac muscle is myogenic (beats by itself)
                            • The cardiac cycle
                              • Atrial systole
                                • Ventricular systole
                                  • Diastole
                                    • Atria and ventricles relax. Atria fill with blood and the semilunar valves on the aorta close so blood can't flow back into the ventricles
                                  • The atrioventricular nodepasses the electrical impulse to the purkinje fibres
                                    • There is a delay of 0.1 seconds to allow blood to enter ventricles
                                      • Impulse passes down bundle of his and ventricle contacts from the bottom
                                • SAN contracts and transmits an electrical impulse into the atria
                                • Ventricles are electrically insulated so don't contact
                              • Blood flows from a high to low pressure
                          • Cheolesterol and fats build up in the lining  of the arteries (atheroma)
                            • This constricts the artery causing atheroscleorsis
                              • The atheroma hardens to become a plaque
                                • Can swell (aneurism) and burst
                                • Can also cause a thrombus when blood gets lodged on the plaque or an embolism could get caught on  the plaque
                                  • This blocks off the oxygen supply to the heart causing a myocardial infarction
                                  • Pulmonary embolisims are in the lungs and can cause breathing difficulty and death-often caused by deep vein thrombosis
                          • Risk factors
                            • Cholesterol
                            • Blood pressure stimulates thickening of the artery wall
                            • Genetics
                            • Nicotine and CO in cigarettes increase blood pressure
                        • Cholera
                          • The Cholera bacteria opens Cl- channels so the water potential in the lumen is lowered
                          • Immune system
                            • Leukocytes (white blood cells)
                              • Phagocytes
                                • Non specific immune system
                                  • Granulocytes
                                    • release histamines and prostoglandins which result in inflammation
                                      • Cause blood clotting and capillary leakage so phagocytes can enter the area
                              • Granulocytes
                                • release histamines and prostoglandins which result in inflammation
                                  • Cause blood clotting and capillary leakage so phagocytes can enter the area
                              • T lymphocytes
                                • Specific immune system
                                  • B lymphocytes
                                  • Macrophages act as antigen presenting cells
                                    • Matching T helper cells attach to the macrophages and clone themselves.
                                      • Cytotoxic T cells attach to the invading cells and create pores in their membranes so they burst and die
                                      • Plasma B cells produce antibodies
                                        • 2 heavy chains and two short chains make a Y shape, the ends are called 'variable regions' nand they form antigen-antibody complexes
                                          • Monoclonal antibodies are made by injecting mice with antigens and collecting b cells
                                            • Can be used as a magic bullet to target specific body cells eg cancer
                                        • Antibodies can clump cells together - called AGGLUTINATION
                              • B lymphocytes
                            • Invertebrates have antimicrobial peptides which are good antibiotics and can kill cancer cells
                    • Risk increased by poor diet, AIDS and overcrowding so it is more common in poor countries
                    • Emphysema
                      • Caused by smoking
                      • Tar causes protease to be released
                        • This destroys elastin
                          • Alveoli aren't as elastic and may merge
                    • Some B and T cells remain in the blood as memory cells so that if the infection occurs again it triggers a quick secondary immune response
                      • Matching T helper cells attach to the macrophages and clone themselves.
                        • Cytotoxic T cells attach to the invading cells and create pores in their membranes so they burst and die
                        • Plasma B cells produce antibodies
                          • 2 heavy chains and two short chains make a Y shape, the ends are called 'variable regions' nand they form antigen-antibody complexes
                            • Monoclonal antibodies are made by injecting mice with antigens and collecting b cells
                              • Can be used as a magic bullet to target specific body cells eg cancer
                          • Antibodies can clump cells together - called AGGLUTINATION
                      • Some pathogens show antigenic variabilty as they change their antigens with new strains
                    • Immunisation uses a non pathogenic strain to trigger this response
                      • Some B and T cells remain in the blood as memory cells so that if the infection occurs again it triggers a quick secondary immune response
                        • Some pathogens show antigenic variabilty as they change their antigens with new strains
                    • Can be used to stain organelles to see under a microscope

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