carbohydrates

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  • carbohydrates
    • organic compounds containing the elements oxygen, hydrogen and carbon
    • monosacharides
      • general formula (CH20)n
      • glucose is a hexose sugar and contains the formula C6H12O6
        • glucose exists as two isomers
          • ALPHA
          • BETA
      • functions include: used as a source of energy in respiration
        • act as building blocks for larger molecules e.g: glucose is used to make starch and cellulose
    • dissaccharides
      • TWO monosaccharide units linked together with formation of a glycosidic bond and elimination of water - CONDENSATION REACTION
      • a glucose + a glucose = maltose
        • glucose + galactose = lactose
          • glucose + fructose = sucrose
      • storage and transport
    • polysaccharides
      • STARCH = storage molecule
        • made up of alpha glucose molecules held together and comprises of amylopectin and amylose
          • amylose: 1-4 glycosidic bonds and is linear (unbranched)
          • amylopectin: 1-4 and 1-6 glycosidic bonds and is highly branched
            • readily hydrolysed to alpha glucose which is soluble and can be transported to areas where energy is needed
      • CELLULOSE = structural poly
        • long chains of parallel beta glucose molecules cross linked by hydrogen bonds
        • between 60-70 cellulose molecules cross linked to form microfibrils - these are held in bundles called fibres - fibres run in diff directions to increase strength
      • CHITIN
        • Strong waterproof and lightweight to form exoskeleton of insects
        • has amino acids added to form muco poly

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