Carbohydrates

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  • Created by: emma
  • Created on: 06-03-14 18:40
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  • Carbohydrates
    • Condensation reactions
      • Two monosaccharides join together
        • Disaccharides + water
        • Glucose + glucose= water + maltose
        • Glucose + galactose= Lactose
        • Glucose + Fructose = Sucrose
    • Hydrolosis
      • Disaccharide + water = 2 monosaccharides
        • Break glycosidic bonds
      • C12H22O11 + H2O = 2C12H22O11
    • Test for carbohydrates
      • Benedicts for reducing sugars
        • Add benedicts solution and heat to 95
          • Colour change form change from blue to red
      • Benedicts for non reducing sugars
        • Boil in acid then neutralise or add an enzyme to hydrolyse
          • Add benedicts and heat to 95
            • colour change from blue to red
      • Starch
        • Add iodine to sample
          • Colour goes blue black
    • Digested
      • Salivary gland secretes amylase
        • Hydrolyses starch into maltose
      • Pancreas secretes amylase
        • Hydrolyses starch into maltose
      • Maltase is hydrolyzed in epithelium lining of small intestine
        • into glucose which can be absorbed into blood
    • Polysaccharides
      • Amylose long straight chains of alpha glucose so it is compact
        • Used in plants for storage
      • Amylopectin branched chains of alpha glucose to provide a large surface area for rapid hydrolysis
        • Used in humans as storage

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