Carbohydrates

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  • Carbohydrates
    • Structure
      • Simple carbohydrates are called monosaccharides
        • All monosaccharides have similar properties: soluble in water, sweet tasting and form crystals
      • Disaccharides are made by joining monosaccharides together in a condensation reaction
        • A glycosidic bond is formed, and water is eliminated
      • In hydrolysis, a water molecule is used to break the glycosidic bond
      • Glucose
        • In alpha glucose, the OH at C1 is below the plane of the ring; in beta glucose, the OH at C1 is above the plane of the ring
    • Function
      • Source of energy
        • Don't dissolve, so the stored glucose doesn't affect the water potential of the cells
      • Store energy
        • Holds glucose molecules in chains so they can be easily broken off from the ends to provide glucose for respiration when required
      • Provide structure
    • Polysaccharides
      • Amylose
        • Formed from alpha glucose molecules with 1-4 glycosidic bonds
        • Chains of amylose coil to form a long spiral helix, which makes it quite compact
        • Found in plant cells
      • Cellulose
        • Formed from beta glucose molecules with 1-4 glycosidic bonds
        • Lie straight and form hydrogen bonds with adjacent molecules - forms bundles called fibrils (larger fibrils are fibres) - therefore structurally strong
        • Forms plant cells
      • Glycogen
        • Made up of alpha glucose molecules with 1-4 glycosidic bonds
          • Also has branches of 1-6 glycosidic bonds
        • Not very tightly coiled, and are quite short
        • Found in the liver and muscles where it is broken down into glucose and used as a source of energy

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