Biological molecules

Biological molecules

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  • Carbohydrates
    • Monosaccharide-glucose
    • Disaccharides
      • Formed when 2 monosaccharides join by a glycosidic donned in a condensation reaction
      • Glucose + glucose = maltose
        • Formed on digestion of starch by amylase
      • Glucose + galactose = lactose
      • Glucose + fructose = sucrose
    • Biological molecules
      • Lipids
        • Tryglycerides
          • Glycerol and fatty acid
            • One molecule joins with three fatty acids by ester bonds in a condensation reaction, producing the bi-product water
          • Used for storage, insulation and protection as they are insoluble
          • Double bond - unsaturated. High melting point
          • no double bond - saturated. low melting point
        • Phospholipids
          • Phosphate - head. hydrophilic
          • Glycerol
      • Amino acids
        • Make up proteins
          • Joined by peptide bonds
            • Dipeptide
            • Tripeptide
            • Polypeptide
        • Structure
          • Basic amino group
          • Variable R group
          • Hydrogen atom
      • Proteins
        • Primary structure - order of amino acids
        • Secondary structure
          • held together by hydrogen bonds between carboxyl and amino groups
          • Alphs sheet
            • helix held by hydrogen bonds, very strong and stable.
          • Beta sheet
            • zijg zag sheet of antiparallelle strands
        • Tertiary structure
          • Compact globular structure of floded up peptide chain
            • Each is unique and the tertiary structure determines function and properties
          • Bonds form between R group and amino acid group
            • Hydrogen bonds
            • Sulphur bridges - Covalent bonds
        • Quaternary structure
          • Arrangement of different chains
      • Biochemical tests
        • Starch
          • Iodine
          • Blue/Black
        • Lipids
          • 1: Ethanol
          • 2: Shake, then transfer liquid into a different container with water
          • 3: Cloudy
        • Protein
          • Biuret solutiom
          • Lilac/purple
        • Reducing sugars
          • 1: Benidicts
          • 2: Shake and heat at 95
          • 3: Change in colour, different destiny shows different amounts. semi-quantative
        • Non-reducing sugars
          • 1: Boil with dilute hydrochloric acid to break hydrogen bonds
          • 2: add solid sodium hydrogen carbonate to neutrilise
          • 3: Test for reducing sugars

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