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  • Created by: selen.
  • Created on: 22-04-15 17:49
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  • carbohydrates
    • Potential Energy Store
      • Glycogen (animals)
        • consists of alpha glucose
          • BRANCHED b/c of 1-4 and 1-6 glycosidic bonds (more 1-6 than 1-4)
        • Properties
          • Less dense than starch but sitll energy dense
          • Insoluble so good method of storing glucose
      • Starch (plants)
        • 2 components: amylose & amylopectin
          • Amylopectin: 1-4 & 1-6 glycosidic bonds
            • Therefore has a BRANCHED structure
          • Amylose: alpha glucose attached in  1-4 glycosidic bond
            • coiled into HELIX, held together by H-bonds
        • Properties
          • Insoluble, so is excellent method of storing glucose
          • V. energy dense b/c of coiled amylose
    • Disaccharides
      • Two monosaccharides joined together
        • It is a condestaion reaction in which water is released
          • Two or more disaccharides
          • The bond formed is a glycosidic bond
          • When the bond breaks it is a hydrolisis reaction which needs water and an enzyme
    • Monosaccharides
      • grouped based on the number of carbons they have4
        • 6 carbon chain are hexoses (ring structure)
          • e.g. glucose and fructose (C6H12O6) - they are structural isomers
    • Polysaccharides
      • Two or more disaccharides
      • Examples: Starch, glycogen and cellulose
    • Cellulose
      • It is a structural carbohydrate
      • Polymer of B glucose where every other glucose is rotated 180°
      • Bonding
        • Glycosidic bonds
        • so many OH groups that lots of hydrogen bonds can form
          • makes it strong & can withstand pressure in a plant w/o bursting
    • Glucose
      • Alpha & Beta
        • Beta glucose has OH on the top of carbon 5
        • Alpha glucose has OH on the bottom of carbon 6
      • Properties
        • small molecule (able to pass through cell membrane)
        • Easily broken down (respiration- release of energy)
        • Soluble in water (transport around the body)


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