• Created by: Amber
  • Created on: 11-09-18 21:07
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  • Carbohydrates
    • Function
      • Main source of Energy
        • Deficiency
          • Lack of energy - tiredness, dizzy
          • Weight loss, no energy so uses fat from other parts of body
          • Severe weakness, body uses up protein and causes a loss of muscle
          • Not enough fibre - constipation
        • Excess
          • Obesity - extra is converted to fat
          • Tooth decay - too many sugary foods
          • Type 2 Diabetes - simple carbs quickly digested, causes rapid surges in blood sugar levels.
            • If blood sugar levels fluctuate too wildly - leads to diabetes
      • Get rid of waste products (dietary fibre)
    • Complex Carbohydrates (starch)
      • Polysaccharides
        • Made up of lots of monosaccharides joined together
        • eg starches are made up of lots of glucose molecules
        • They take longer to digest than simple ones so they gradually increase blood sugar levels
          • They provide a slow, steady release of energy
        • Starchy foods like wholewheat bread and potatoes
    • Glycaemic Index - GI
      • Shows how carbs affect blood sugar levels
      • High GI foods are digested quickly and cause a rapid rise in blood sugar levels
        • High GI foods include white bread/pasta/rice/cornflakes and watermelon
      • Low GI foods are digested slowly and cause a gradual rise in blood sugar levels
        • Low GI foods include wholewheat bread/pasta/brown rice/peaches and porridge
    • Simple Carbohydrates (sugar)
      • The body rapidly digests simple carbs, making blood sugar levels rise quickly and providing short burst of energy
      • Monosaccharides
        • They are the most basic sugar molecules e.g. glucose, fructose and Galactose
      • Disaccharides
        • They are made up of two monosaccharides e.g. sucrose is made up of glucose and fructose


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